Real Numbers are the Hidden Variables of Classical Mechanics

Quantum Studies: Mathematics and Foundations 7:197–201 (2020)
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Do scientific theories limit human knowledge? In other words, are there physical variables hidden by essence forever? We argue for negative answers and illustrate our point on chaotic classical dynamical systems. We emphasize parallels with quantum theory and conclude that the common real numbers are, de facto, the hidden variables of classical physics. Consequently, real numbers should not be considered as ``physically real" and classical mechanics, like quantum physics, is indeterministic.

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Nicolas Gisin
University of Geneva


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