Três Vezes Não: Um Estudo Sobre as Negações Clássica, Paraconsistente e Paracompleta

Dissertation, Federal University of Santa Catarina (2020)
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Could there be a single logical system that would allow us to work simultaneously with classical, paraconsistent, and paracomplete negations? These three negations were separately studied in logics whose negations bear their names. Initially we will restrict our analysis to propositional logics by analyzing classical negation, ¬c, as treated by Classical Propositional Logic (LPC); the paraconsistent negation, ¬p, as treated through the hierarchy of Paraconsistent Propositional Calculi Cn (0 ≤ n ≤ ω); and the paracomplete negation, ¬q, as treated by the hierarchy of Paracomplete Propositional Calculi Pn (0 ≤ n ≤ ω). In “Logics that are both paraconsistent and paracomplete” (1989), Newton da Costa proposed a system with approximate characteristics to what we are looking for. In the hierarchy of Non-Alethical Propositional Calculi Nn (0 ≤ n ≤ ω), only one negation is introduced (as primitive), called a “non-alethic” (¬n), whose operation preserves the properties of classical, or paraconsistent or paracomplete negation -- depending on the well or ill behavior of the formula connected to it. However, as we shall see, in the hierarchy Nn we can not reiterate negations with different behaviors in a same formula (e.g., ¬p¬cα or ¬q¬c¬p α), or even analyze a formula like ¬cα → ¬pα. In view of these problems, can we really say that the hierarchy Nn allows us to understand the relationships and interactions of the three types of negations? In order to deal with this, given the initial problem, we will present four axiomatic systems (KG) in which, unlike Nn, the three negations are directly introduced -- offering a semantics and a method of proofs by analytic tableaux. Through the KG Systems we will show how the negations interact, obtaining non-demonstrable theorems in LPC, Cn, Pn, and Nn (0 ≤ n ≤ ω). Finally, we will also offer a first-order extension for the KG Systems.
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