Reification and Truthmaking Patterns

In J. Trujillo (ed.), Proceedings of 37th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, ER 2018, Xi'an, China, October 22-25, 2018. Cham: Springer. pp. 151-165 (2018)
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Reification is a standard technique in conceptual modeling, which consists of including in the domain of discourse entities that may otherwise be hidden or implicit. However, deciding what should be rei- fied is not always easy. Recent work on formal ontology offers us a simple answer: put in the domain of discourse those entities that are responsible for the (alleged) truth of our propositions. These are called truthmakers. Re-visiting previous work, we propose in this paper a systematic analysis of truthmaking patterns for properties and relations based on the ontolog- ical nature of their truthmakers. Truthmaking patterns will be presented as generalization of reification patterns, accounting for the fact that, in some cases, we do not reify a property or a relationship directly, but we rather reify its truthmakers.
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Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology.Arp, Robert; Smith, Barry & Spear, Andrew D.
Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic Properties.Marshall, Dan & Weatherson, Brian

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