[SK] Rozumnosť ako prirodzenosť: ideál humanity v dielach Barucha Spinozu

In Vasil Gluchman (ed.), Etické myslenie minulosti a súčasnosti (ETPP 2017/17): Etika v minulosti – minulosť v etike / Ethical Thinking – Past & Present (ETPP 2017/17): Ethics in the Past – the Past in Ethics. Prešov, Slovensko: pp. 93-104 (2017)
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Abstract
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) is considered to be one of the most prominent representatives of traditional European humanism and liberalism. In the next breath, however, we might add that his humanism was a form of modern humanism, which often uncritically overestimated human capacities and capabilities, leading to many ideological, but also practical failures of humanity. This paper aims to reevaluate Spinoza's rationalist model of human nature in the context of the "shared" rational nature of humans, which is characterized by a broadly anthropological approach. In Spinoza's thought, a human being is not regarded merely as a rational being (or thinking subject, for that matter), but is considered in his complexity, including his affectivity, corporeality, sociality, and - above all - morality. The ideal of free and rational humanity is not an abstract concept, but an expression of real possibilities regarding the development of humankind's innate potential.
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