Processes endure, whereas events occur

In Stefano Borgo, Roberta Ferrario, Claudio Masolo & Laure Vieu (eds.), Ontology Makes Sense, Essays in honor of Nicola Guarino. Amsterdam, Pays-Bas: pp. 177-193 (2019)
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Abstract
In this essay, we aim to help clarify the nature of so-called 'occurrences' by attributing distinct modes of existence and persistence to processes and events. In doing so, we break with the perdurantism claimed by DOLCEā€™s authors and we distance ourselves from mereological analyzes like those recently conducted by Guarino to distinguish between 'processes' and 'episodes'. In line with the works of Stout and Galton, we first bring closer (physical) processes and objects in their way of enduring by proposing for processes a notion of dynamic presence (contrasting with a static presence for objects). Then, on the events side, we attribute to them the status of abstract entities by identifying them with objects of thought (by individual and collective subjects), and this allows us to distinguish for themselves between existence and occurrence. We therefore identify them with psychological (or even social) endurants, which may contingently occur.
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