Virtual water and groundwater security


In a recent study by Cai et al. about water shortages in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban areas, virtual water has become the central concept of the groundwater security strategy by suggesting increasing imports of water-intensive agricultural products instead of utilizing the depleted groundwater resources for production. However, despite reviewing the content, we could not see how the authors discussed the households’ economic and financial issues from both production and consumption perspectives.

Author Profiles

Minh-Hoang Nguyen
Phenikaa University
Quan-Hoang Vuong
Phenikaa University


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