Standard Bearers

Episteme 14 (3):329-341 (2017)
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In both ethics and epistemology an important question is whether justification is a fully internal or a partly external matter. In view of analogies between relevant considerations in each area, I recommend distinguishing, as basic and independent subjects of normative status, (i) people and (ii) what they do. Evaluations of subjects, on one hand, and of their beliefs and actions, on the other, are less intimately related than is presupposed. This helps resolve internalism/externalism controversies in both domains. An important related advantage of the distinction is its effect on our understanding of normative luck, both moral and epistemic.
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The Moral Problem.Smith, Michael
Mortal Questions.Nagel, Thomas
Moral Luck.Williams, B. A. O. & Nagel, T.

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