Adaptive information and animal behaviour: Why motorists stop at red traffic lights

Evolutionary Theory 10:145-155 (1992)
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Argues that information, in the animal behaviour or evolutionary context, is correlation/covariation. The alternation of red and green traffic lights is information because it is (quite strictly) correlated with the times when it is safe to drive through the intersection; thus driving in accordance with the lights is adaptive (causative of survival). Daylength is usefully, though less strictly, correlated with the optimal time to breed. Information in the sense of covariance implies what is adaptive; if an animal can infer what the information implies, it increases its chances of survival.
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