Aim of work: the research of the determination and destination of human for nature and cognition. The basis of the research is Karl Raimund Popper's article «Evolutionary epistemology». A critical analysis of Popper's proposed theses and the scheme of theory evolution is conducted. The signifi-cance of the occurrence of the system of tenses of the language as an implication of the descriptive function of the language is noted. The issue with which the cycle of evolution of life and cognition begins is revealed. The language is included in the scheme proposed by Popper. As a result of the reasoning the pivotal feature of the human essence is identified: awareness the problem of death. This awareness makes it possible to relate oneself to the problem, which is the reason for the presence of the most aggregate evaluation categories: «good» and «evil». This is how a person may determine the purpose of evolution: overcoming the problem. In contrast to nature, the evolution of which is aimed at avoiding the problem. Having reached the goal, a person will go beyond himself as a phe-nomenon defined by the awareness of the problem. In this case, self-transcendence is a person's tran-sition to a new quality. The role of philosophy in the procedures of self-transcendence occurring in contemporary society is discussed.