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  1. Mental Tests and Measurements.J. McK Cattell & Francis Galton - 1890 - Mind 15 (59):373-381.
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  • Robert Rosen’s Work and Complex Systems Biology.I. C. Baianu - 2006 - Axiomathes 16 (1):25-34.
    Complex Systems Biology approaches are here considered from the viewpoint of Robert Rosen’s (M,R)-systems, Relational Biology and Quantum theory, as well as from the standpoint of computer modeling. Realizability and Entailment of (M,R)-systems are two key aspects that relate the abstract, mathematical world of organizational structure introduced by Rosen to the various physicochemical structures of complex biological systems. Their importance for understanding biological function and life itself, as well as for designing new strategies for treating diseases such as cancers, is (...)
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  • Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility.Harry G. Frankfurt - 1969 - Journal of Philosophy 66 (23):829.
    This essay challenges the widely accepted principle that a person is morally responsible for what he has done only if he could have done otherwise. The author considers situations in which there are sufficient conditions for a certain choice or action to be performed by someone, So that it is impossible for the person to choose or to do otherwise, But in which these conditions do not in any way bring it about that the person chooses or acts as he (...)
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  • The Logic of Scientific Discovery.Karl Raimund Popper - 1934 - London, England: Routledge.
    Described by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day.
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  • The Principles of Psychology.William James - 1890 - London, England: Dover Publications.
    This first volume contains discussions of the brain, methods for analyzing behavior, thought, consciousness, attention, association, time, and memory.
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  • The Principles of Psychology.William James - 1890 - The Monist 1:284.
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  • The Illusion of Conscious Will.Daniel M. Wegner - 2002 - MIT Press.
    In this book Daniel Wegner offers a novel understanding of the relation of consciousness, the will, and our intentional and voluntary actions. Wegner claims that our experience and common sense view according to which we can influence our behavior roughly the way we experience that we do it is an illusion.
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  • Categorical Ontology of Levels and Emergent Complexity: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Ion C. Baianu - 2007 - Axiomathes 17 (3-4):209-222.
    An overview of the following three related papers in this issue presents the Emergence of Highly Complex Systems such as living organisms, man, society and the human mind from the viewpoint of the current Ontological Theory of Levels. The ontology of spacetime structures in the Universe is discussed beginning with the quantum level; then, the striking emergence of the higher levels of reality is examined from a categorical—relational and logical viewpoint. The ontological problems and methodology aspects discussed in the first (...)
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  • Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness.David Chalmers - 1995 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (3):200-19.
    To make progress on the problem of consciousness, we have to confront it directly. In this paper, I first isolate the truly hard part of the problem, separating it from more tractable parts and giving an account of why it is so difficult to explain. I critique some recent work that uses reductive methods to address consciousness, and argue that such methods inevitably fail to come to grips with the hardest part of the problem. Once this failure is recognized, the (...)
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  • Defeating Dr. Evil with Self-Locating Belief.Adam Elga - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):383–396.
    Dr. Evil learns that a duplicate of Dr. Evil has been created. Upon learning this, how seriously should he take the hypothesis that he himself is that duplicate? I answer: very seriously. I defend a principle of indifference for self-locating belief which entails that after Dr. Evil learns that a duplicate has been created, he ought to have exactly the same degree of belief that he is Dr. Evil as that he is the duplicate. More generally, the principle shows that (...)
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  • Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness.D. J. Chalmers - 1996 - Toward a Science of Consciousness:5-28.
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  • The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics.Roger Penrose - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    In his bestselling work of popular science, Sir Roger Penrose takes us on a fascinating roller-coaster ride through the basic principles of physics, cosmology, mathematics, and philosophy to show that human thinking can never be emulated by a machine.
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  • What is It Like to Be a Bat?Thomas Nagel - 1974 - Philosophical Review 83 (October):435-50.
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  • What is It Like to Be a Bat?Thomas Nagel - 2003 - In John Heil (ed.), Philosophy of Mind: A Guide and Anthology. Oxford University Press.
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  • The Self and Its Brain: An Argument for Interactionism.Karl R. Popper & John C. Eccles - 1977 - Springer.
    Physical and chemical processes may act upon the mind; and when we are writing a difficult letter, our mind acts upon our body and, through a chain of physical...
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  • Personal Identity.Eric T. Olson - 2002 - In Stephen P. Stich & Ted A. Warfield (eds.), Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Mind. Blackwell.
    Personal identity deals with questions about ourselves qua people (or persons). Many of these questions are familiar ones that occur to everyone at some time: What am I? When did I begin? What will happen to me when I die? Discussions of personal identity go right back to the origins of Western philosophy, and most major figures have had something to say about it. (There is also a rich literature on personal identity in Eastern philosophy, which I am not competent (...)
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  • Conspiracy Theories of Quantum Mechanics.Peter J. Lewis - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (2):359-381.
    It has long been recognized that a local hidden variable theory of quantum mechanics can in principle be constructed, provided one is willing to countenance pre-measurement correlations between the properties of measured systems and measuring devices. However, this ‘conspiratorial’ approach is typically dismissed out of hand. In this article I examine the justification for dismissing conspiracy theories of quantum mechanics. I consider the existing arguments against such theories, and find them to be less than conclusive. I suggest a more powerful (...)
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  • On the Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics.J. S. Bell - 2004 - In Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1--13.
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  • A Conceptual and Categorical Framework in the Ontology of Levels.R. Brown, J. F. Glazebrook & I. C. Baianu - 2007 - Axiomathes 17 (3-4):209-222.
    An overview of the following three related papers in this issue presents the Emergence of Highly Complex Systems such as living organisms, man, society and the human mind from the viewpoint of the current Ontological Theory of Levels. The ontology of spacetime structures in the Universe is discussed beginning with the quantum level; then, the striking emergence of the higher levels of reality is examined from a categorical—relational and logical viewpoint. The ontological problems and methodology aspects discussed in the first (...)
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  • Universal Ontology of SpaceTime in Complex Systems.I. C. Baianu, R. Brown & J. F. Glazebrook - 2007 - Axiomathes 17 (3-4):209-222.
    An overview of the following three related papers in this issue presents the Emergence of Highly Complex Systems such as living organisms, man, society and the human mind from the viewpoint of the current Ontological Theory of Levels. The ontology of spacetime structures in the Universe is discussed beginning with the quantum level; then, the striking emergence of the higher levels of reality is examined from a categorical—relational and logical viewpoint. The ontological problems and methodology aspects discussed in the first (...)
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  • Simple, Complex and Super-Complex System Ontology: Non-Abelian Biodynamics as a Paradigm Shift.I. C. Baianu & R. Poli - 2007 - Axiomathes 17 (3-4):209-222.
    An overview of the following three related papers in this issue presents the Emergence of Highly Complex Systems such as living organisms, man, society and the human mind from the viewpoint of the current Ontological Theory of Levels. The ontology of spacetime structures in the Universe is discussed beginning with the quantum level; then, the striking emergence of the higher levels of reality is examined from a categorical—relational and logical viewpoint. The ontological problems and methodology aspects discussed in the first (...)
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  • Quantum Aspects of Brain Activity and the Role of Consciousness.Friedrich Beck & John C. Eccles - 1992 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Usa 89:11357-61.
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  • The Self and Its Brain. An Argument for Interactionism.K. R. Popper & J. C. Eccles - 1980 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 42 (3):629-630.
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  • A Conceptual Construction of Complexity Levels Theory in Spacetime Categorical Ontology: Non-Abelian Algebraic Topology, Many-Valued Logics and Dynamic Systems. [REVIEW]R. Brown, J. F. Glazebrook & I. C. Baianu - 2007 - Axiomathes 17 (3-4):409-493.
    A novel conceptual framework is introduced for the Complexity Levels Theory in a Categorical Ontology of Space and Time. This conceptual and formal construction is intended for ontological studies of Emergent Biosystems, Super-complex Dynamics, Evolution and Human Consciousness. A claim is defended concerning the universal representation of an item’s essence in categorical terms. As an essential example, relational structures of living organisms are well represented by applying the important categorical concept of natural transformations to biomolecular reactions and relational structures that (...)
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  • Quantum Mechanics as a Theory of Probability.Itamar Pitowsky - unknown
    We develop and defend the thesis that the Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics is a new theory of probability. The theory, like its classical counterpart, consists of an algebra of events, and the probability measures defined on it. The construction proceeds in the following steps: (a) Axioms for the algebra of events are introduced following Birkhoff and von Neumann. All axioms, except the one that expresses the uncertainty principle, are shared with the classical event space. The only models for (...)
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  • The Time Taken Up by Cerebral Operations.James Mckeen Cattell - 1886 - Mind 11 (42):220-242.
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  • Unconscious Determinants of Free Decisions in the Human Brain.Chun Siong Soon, Marcel Brass, Hans-Jochen Heinze & John-Dylan Haynes - 2008 - Nature Neuroscience 11 (5):543--545.
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  • The Illusion of Conscious Will.R. Holton - 2004 - Mind 113 (449):218-221.
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  • The Logic of Scientific Discovery.K. Popper - 1959 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 10 (37):55-57.
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  • A Hierarchical Model of Temporal Perception.Ernst Pöppel - 1997 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 1 (2):56-61.
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  • Epiphenomenalism.William Robinson - 2003 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Epiphenomenalism is the view that mental events are caused by physical events in the brain, but have no effects upon any physical events. Behavior is caused by muscles that contract upon receiving neural impulses, and neural impulses are generated by input from other neurons or from sense organs. On the epiphenomenalist view, mental events play no causal role in this process. Huxley (1874), who held the view, compared mental events to a steam whistle that contributes nothing to the work of (...)
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  • The Self and Its Brain, an Argument for Interactionism.K. R. Popper & J. C. Eccles - 1980 - Erkenntnis 15 (3):409-416.
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  • Are We Automata?William James - 1879 - Mind 4 (13):1-22.
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  • The Time Taken Up by Cerebral Operations.James Mckeen Cattell - 1886 - Mind 11 (42):220-242.
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  • Remarks on the Mind-Body Question.Eugene P. Wigner - 1961 - In I. J. Good (ed.), The Scientist Speculates. Heineman.
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  • The Principles of Psychology.William James - 1891 - International Journal of Ethics 1 (2):143-169.
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  • Are We Automata?[author unknown] - 1879 - Mind 4 (13):1-22.
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  • The Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics.Simon Kochen & E. P. Specker - 1967 - Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics 17:59--87.
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  • Zur Quantenmechanik der Stoßvorgänge.Max Born - 1926 - Zeitschrift für Physik 37 (12):863-867.
    Durch eine Untersuchung der Stoßvorgänge wird die Auffassung entwickelt, daß die Quantenmechanik in der Schrödingerschen Form nicht nur die stationären Zustände, sondern auch die Quantensprünge zu beschreiben gestattet.
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  • Perceived Order in Different Sense Modalities.Ira J. Hirsh & Carl E. Sherrick Jr - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (5):423.
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  • On the Hypothesis That Animals Are Automata, and its History.T. Huxley - 1874 - Fortnightly Review 95:555-80.
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  • The Uncertainty Principle.Jan Hilgevoord & Jos Uffink - unknown
    Quantum mechanics is generally regarded as the physical theory that is our best candidate for a fundamental and universal description of the physical world. The conceptual framework employed by this theory differs drastically from that of classical physics. Indeed, the transition from classical to quantum physics marks a genuine revolution in our understanding of the physical world.
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