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A Value-Sensitive Design Approach to Intelligent Agents

In Roman Yampolskiy (ed.), Artificial Intelligence Safety and Security. New York, NY, USA: CRC Press. pp. 395-410 (2018)

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  1. The Morality of Autonomous Robots.Aaron M. Johnson & Sidney Axinn - 2013 - Journal of Military Ethics 12 (2):129 - 141.
    While there are many issues to be raised in using lethal autonomous robotic weapons (beyond those of remotely operated drones), we argue that the most important question is: should the decision to take a human life be relinquished to a machine? This question is often overlooked in favor of technical questions of sensor capability, operational questions of chain of command, or legal questions of sovereign borders. We further argue that the answer must be ?no? and offer several reasons for banning (...)
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  • Information, Ethics, and Computers: The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agents. [REVIEW]Bernd Carsten Stahl - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (1):67-83.
    In modern technical societies computers interact with human beings in ways that can affect moral rights and obligations. This has given rise to the question whether computers can act as autonomous moral agents. The answer to this question depends on many explicit and implicit definitions that touch on different philosophical areas such as anthropology and metaphysics. The approach chosen in this paper centres on the concept of information. Information is a multi-facetted notion which is hard to define comprehensively. However, the (...)
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  • Moral Saints.Susan Wolf - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (8):419-439.
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  • The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories.Michael Stocker - 1976 - Journal of Philosophy 73 (14):453-466.
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  • Robots: Ethical by Design.Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Baran Çürüklü - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):61-71.
    Among ethicists and engineers within robotics there is an ongoing discussion as to whether ethical robots are possible or even desirable. We answer both of these questions in the positive, based on an extensive literature study of existing arguments. Our contribution consists in bringing together and reinterpreting pieces of information from a variety of sources. One of the conclusions drawn is that artifactual morality must come in degrees and depend on the level of agency, autonomy and intelligence of the machine. (...)
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  • [On Plato, Meno 5. By C.W.F.A. Wolf. In Lat. Progr., Halle].Christian Wilhelm Friedrich A. Wolf - 1795
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  • On the Moral Responsibility of Military Robots.Thomas Hellström - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):99-107.
    This article discusses mechanisms and principles for assignment of moral responsibility to intelligent robots, with special focus on military robots. We introduce the concept autonomous power as a new concept, and use it to identify the type of robots that call for moral considerations. It is furthermore argued that autonomous power, and in particular the ability to learn, is decisive for assignment of moral responsibility to robots. As technological development will lead to robots with increasing autonomous power, we should be (...)
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  • Integrating Ethics in Design Through the Value-Sensitive Design Approach.Mary L. Cummings - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (4):701-715.
    The Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET) has declared that to achieve accredited status, “engineering programs must demonstrate that their graduates have an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.” Many engineering professors struggle to integrate this required ethics instruction in technical classes and projects because of the lack of a formalized ethics-in-design approach. However, one methodology developed in human-computer interaction research, the Value-Sensitive Design approach, can serve as an engineering education tool which bridges the gap between design and ethics (...)
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  • On the Promotion of Safe and Socially Beneficial Artificial Intelligence.Seth D. Baum - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (4):543-551.
    This paper discusses means for promoting artificial intelligence that is designed to be safe and beneficial for society. The promotion of beneficial AI is a social challenge because it seeks to motivate AI developers to choose beneficial AI designs. Currently, the AI field is focused mainly on building AIs that are more capable, with little regard to social impacts. Two types of measures are available for encouraging the AI field to shift more toward building beneficial AI. Extrinsic measures impose constraints (...)
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  • Ethics and Nanopharmacy: Value Sensitive Design of New Drugs. [REVIEW]Job Timmermans, Yinghuan Zhao & Jeroen van den Hoven - 2011 - NanoEthics 5 (3):269-283.
    Although applications are being developed and have reached the market, nanopharmacy to date is generally still conceived as an emerging technology. Its concept is ill-defined. Nanopharmacy can also be construed as a converging technology, which combines features of multiple technologies, ranging from nanotechnology to medicine and ICT. It is still debated whether its features give rise to new ethical issues or that issues associated with nanopharma are merely an extension of existing issues in the underlying fields. We argue here that, (...)
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  • Inclusive Design: Design for the Whole Population.Roger Coleman, Simeon Keates & Cherie Lebbon - 2003 - Springer Science & Business Media.
    Resulting from a three-year research project entitled i design and funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the ideas in this study reflect the need to overcome the complexities of designing objects and systems that are socially inclusive.
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  • [Book Chapter] (in Press).Bertram F. Malle - 2003
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  • Infusing Advanced AGIs with Human-Like Value Systems: Two Theses.Ben Goertzel - 2016 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 26 (1):50-72.
    Two theses are proposed; regarding the future evolution of the value systems of advanced AGI systems. The Value Learning Thesis is a semi-formalized version of the idea that; if an AGI system is taught human values in an interactive and experiential way as its intelligence increases toward human level; it will likely adopt these human values in a genuine way. The Value Evolution Thesis is a semi-formalized version of the idea that if an AGI system begins with human-like values; and (...)
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  • Designing Robots for Care: Care Centered Value-Sensitive Design.Aimee van Wynsberghe - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):407-433.
    The prospective robots in healthcare intended to be included within the conclave of the nurse-patient relationship—what I refer to as care robots—require rigorous ethical reflection to ensure their design and introduction do not impede the promotion of values and the dignity of patients at such a vulnerable and sensitive time in their lives. The ethical evaluation of care robots requires insight into the values at stake in the healthcare tradition. What’s more, given the stage of their development and lack of (...)
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  • Why We Need Friendly Ai.Luke Muehlhauser & Nick Bostrom - 2014 - Think 13 (36):41-47.
    Humans will not always be the most intelligent agents on Earth, the ones steering the future. What will happen to us when we no longer play that role, and how can we prepare for this transition?
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  • Designing Robots for Care: Care Centered Value-Sensitive Design. [REVIEW]Aimee Wynsberghe - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):407-433.
    The prospective robots in healthcare intended to be included within the conclave of the nurse-patient relationship—what I refer to as care robots—require rigorous ethical reflection to ensure their design and introduction do not impede the promotion of values and the dignity of patients at such a vulnerable and sensitive time in their lives. The ethical evaluation of care robots requires insight into the values at stake in the healthcare tradition. What’s more, given the stage of their development and lack of (...)
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  • Artificial Agents and the Expanding Ethical Circle.Steve Torrance - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (4):399-414.
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  • A Prospective Framework for the Design of Ideal Artificial Moral Agents: Insights From the Science of Heroism in Humans.Travis J. Wiltshire - 2015 - Minds and Machines 25 (1):57-71.
    The growing field of machine morality has becoming increasingly concerned with how to develop artificial moral agents. However, there is little consensus on what constitutes an ideal moral agent let alone an artificial one. Leveraging a recent account of heroism in humans, the aim of this paper is to provide a prospective framework for conceptualizing, and in turn designing ideal artificial moral agents, namely those that would be considered heroic robots. First, an overview of what it means to be an (...)
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  • Racing to the Precipice: A Model of Artificial Intelligence Development.Stuart Armstrong, Nick Bostrom & Carl Shulman - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (2):201-206.
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