Results for 'ЗМІ'

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  1. Pictorial Implicature.Catharine Abell - 2005 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (1):55–66.
    It is generally recognised that an adequate resemblance-based account of depiction must specify some standard of correctness which explains how a pictures content differs from the (...) content we would attribute to it purely on the basis of resemblance. For example, an adequate standard should explain why stick figure drawings do not depict emaciated beings with gargantuan heads. Most attempts to specify a standard of correctness appeal to the intentions of the pictures maker. However, I argue that the most detailed such attempt to date is incomplete. I argue that an adequate standard can be given only if one construes a pictures content as being pictorially implicated, in a way analogous to that in which Grice explains an utterances meaning as being conversationally implicated. I propose a theory of pictorial implicature and use it as the basis for an intention-based standard of correctness. I show how this standard is able to explain both the ways in which the content of pictures differs from the content we would attribute to them solely on the basis of resemblance, and how we are able to apply an intention-based standard of correctness even though we lack any independent knowledge of the intentions of picturesmakers. (shrink)
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  2. The Frame Problem and the Physical and Emotional Basis of Human Cognition.Carlos Acosta - 2006 - Technoetic Arts 4 (2):151-65.
    This essay focuses on the intriguing relationship between mathematics and physical phenomena, arguing that the brain uses a single spatiotemporal- causal objective framework in order to characterize (...)
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  3.  95
    A Transdisciplinary Ontology of Innovation Governance.Wendy Ann Adams - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (2):147-174.
    Intellectual property law tends to be viewed as the only (or most significant) mechanism for achieving policy goals relating to innovation assets. Yet more creative and effective (...)
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  4.  72
    Sensationalism.Joseph Agassi - 1966 - Mind 75 (297):1-24.
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  5.  11
    Connectionist Rules: A Rejoinder to Horgan and Tienson's Connectionism and the Philosophy of Psychology.Kenneth Aizawa - 1999 - Acta Analytica 22 (22):59-85.
    This paper has a two-fold aim. First, it reinforces a version of the "syntactic argument" given in Aizawa (1994). This argument shows that connectionist networks (...)
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  6. Circles Within a Circle: The Condition for the Possibility of Ethical Business Institutions Within a Market System[REVIEW]Robert Elliott Allinson - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):17-28.
    How can a business institution function as an ethical institution within a wider system if the context of the wider system is inherently unethical? If the primary (...)
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  7. Ethical Values as Part of the Definition of Business Enterprise and Part of the Internal Structure of the Business Oganization.Robert E. Allinson - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (9-10):1015 - 1028.
    The orientation of this paper is that there is no special science of "business ethics" any more than there is one of "medical ethics" (...)or "legal ethics". While there may be issues that arise in medicine or law that require special treatment, the ways of relating to such issues are derived from a basic ethical stance. Once one has evolved such an ethical stance and thus has incorporated a fundamental mode of relating to her or his fellow human beings, the "how" to deal with various ethical "issues" will follow as a natural consequence of one's ethical stance or modality. It is not necessary, in the formation of one's fundamental ethical stance to know if one is a utilitarian or a deontologist. It is doubtful whether Buddha knew what kind of ethics he was practising. If one conceives of ethics as something extrinsic to various disciplines and attempts to first practise a discipline and then to apply ethics to modify the results of that discipline it is entirely possible that conflicts will result between what is perceived of as the proper pursuit of that discipline and the ethical considerations. The argument of this paper is that it is more efficacious (in addition to being more true) to take ethical considerations into account in the construction of the definition of the discipline. This paper is devoted to showing that business and ethics are not two different and competing fields of interest (thus requiring a discipline of business ethics to be grafted onto the study of business enterprise), but that ethical concerns are part and parcel of the very concept of a business enterprise and the internal operation of a business organization. (shrink)
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  8. On the Question of Relativism in the Chuang-Tzu.Robert E. Allinson - 1989 - Philosophy East and West 39 (1):13-26.
    This article offers a meta-analysis of contemporary approaches aimed at resolving the internal, relativistic-non-relativistic tension within the text of the Chuang-Tzu. In the first (...)section, the four most commonly applied approaches are unpacked and evaluated, ranging from relativistic approaches such as hard relativism and soft relativism, to approaches that acknowledge both relativism and non-relativism, as well as others which acknowledge neither of the two perspectives (relativism and non-relativism). After demonstrating the immanent difficulties these four types of approaches encounter, the latter section of this paper puts forward a different philosophical solution known as asymmetrical relativism. This novel approach preserves textual evidence for both relativistic and non-relativistic attitudes within the Chuang-Tzu by proposing that the mind engages in relativism insofar as it is in a state of ignorance; en route to enlightenment, however, value-laden discourse and pedagogical heuristics are nonetheless still employed as instruments for the mind to transcend its own ignorance. (shrink)
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  9. Wittgenstein, Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu: The Art of Circumlocution.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2007 - Asian Philosophy 17 (1):97 – 108.
    Where Western philosophy ends, with the limits of language, marks the beginning of Eastern philosophy. The Tao de jing of Laozi begins with the limitations of language (...)
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  10. Sceptical Theism and Evidential Arguments From Evil.Michael J. Almeida & Graham Oppy - 2003 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (4):496 – 516.
    Sceptical theists--e.g., William Alston and Michael Bergmann--have claimed that considerations concerning human cognitive limitations are alone sufficient to undermine evidential arguments from evil. We argue (...)
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  11. The Memory of Another Past: Bergson, Deleuze and a New Theory of Time.Alia Al-Saji - 2004 - Continental Philosophy Review 37 (2):203-239.
    Through the philosophies of Bergson and Deleuze, my paper explores a different theory of time. I reconstitute Deleuzes paradoxes of the past in Difference and Repetition (...)and Bergsonism to reveal a theory of time in which the relation between past and present is one of coexistence rather than succession. The theory of memory implied here is a non-representational one. To elaborate this theory, I ask: what is the role of thevirtual imagein Bergsons Matter and Memory? Far from representing the simple afterimage of a present perception, thevirtual imagecarries multiple senses. Contracting the immediate past for the present, or expanding virtually to hold the whole of memory (and even the whole of the universe), the virtual image can form a bridge between the present and the non-representational past. This non-representational account of memory sheds light not only on the structure of time for Bergson, but also on his concepts of pure memory and virtuality. The rereading of memory also opens the way for Bergsonian intuition to play an intersubjective role; intuition becomes a means for navigating the resonances and dissonances that can be felt between different rhythms of becoming or planes of memory, which constitute different subjects. (shrink)
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  12. Kant's Deduction of Freedom and Morality.Karl Ameriks - 1981 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 19 (1):53-79.
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  13. How Ibn Sīnian is Suhrawardī's Theory of Knowledge?Mehdi Aminrazavi - 2003 - Philosophy East and West 53 (2):203-214.
    It is demonstrated here that despite apparent differences and their adherence to two different schools of thought, Suhrawardī's epistemology is essentially Ibn Sīnian, and even his (...)theory of "knowledge by Presence" ('ilm al-hudurī), which is considered to be uniquely his, is at least inspired by Ibn Sīnā. I argue that Ibn Sīnā's peripatetic orientation and Suhrawardī's ishrāqī perspective have both maintained and adhered to the same epistemological framework while the philosophical languages in which their respective epistemologies are discussed are different. (shrink)
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  14. Application of Double-Cusp Catastrophe Theory to the Physical Evolution of Qualia: Implications for Paradigm Shift in Medicine and Psychology.Richard L. Amoroso - 2004 - Anticipative and Predictive Models in Systems Science 1 (1):19-26.
    Seminal work intended to found a new field of integrative Noetic Science is summarized. Until now the philosophy of Biological Mechanism has ruled medicine and psychology. Penrose (...)
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  15. Book Review-Contemporary Philosophy of Social Science[REVIEW]Mahesh Ananth - 2001 - Philosophia 28 (1-4):539-555.
    Book Review of Brian Fay's Contemporary Philosophy of Social Science.
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  16. Psychological Altruism Vs. Biological Altruism: Narrowing the Gap with the Baldwin Effect.Mahesh Ananth - 2005 - Acta Biotheoretica 53 (3):217-239.
    This paper defends the position that the supposed gap between biological altruism and psychological altruism is not nearly as wide as some scholars (e.g., Elliott Sober) (...)insist. Crucial to this defense is the use of James Mark Baldwin's concepts oforganic selectionandsocial heredityto assist in revealing that the gap between biological and psychological altruism is more of a small lacuna. Specifically, this paper argues that ontogenetic behavioral adjustments, which are crucial to individual survival and reproduction, are also crucial to species survival. In particular, it is argued that human psychological altruism is produced and maintained by various sorts of mimicry and self-reflection in the aid of both individual and species survival. The upshot of this analysis is that it is possible to offer an account of psychological altruism that is closelytethered to biological altruism without reducing entirely the former to thelatter. (shrink)
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  17. Critter Psychology: On the Possibility of Nonhuman Animal Folk Psychology.Kristin Andrews - 2007 - In Daniel D. Hutto & Matthew Ratcliffe (eds.), Folk Psychology Re-Assessed. Kluwer/Springer Press. pp. 191--209.
    When we ask the question whether animals have their own folk psychology, were asking whether any other species has a commonsense conception of psychological phenomenon. Different (...)versions of this question have been discussed over the past 25 years, but no clear answer has emerged. Perhaps one reason for this lack of progress is that we dont clearly understand the question. I defend a two-fold view of folk psychology that takes as central the capacity to engage in some folk psychological practices (e.g. predicting, explaining, coordinating, justifying, etc.) and the capacity to see another as minded. Given this account, I argue that chimpanzees, as intentional agents who engage in folk psychological practices and have some understanding of others as minded agents, are folk psychologists. -/- . (shrink)
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  18. Improving Our Aim.Judith Andre, Leonard Fleck & Tom Tomlinson - 1999 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (2):130 – 147.
    Bioethicists appearing in the media have been accused of "shooting from the hip" (Rachels, 1991). The criticism is sometimes justified. We identify some reasons our interactions (...) with the press can have bad results and suggest remedies. In particular we describe a target (fostering better public dialogue), obstacles to hitting the target (such as intrinsic and accidental defects in our knowledge) and suggest some practical ways to surmont those obstacles (including seeking out ways to write or speak at length, rather than in sound bites). We make use of our own research into the way journalists quote bioethicists. We end by suggesting that the profession as a whole look into this question more fully. (shrink)
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  19. On Being Genetically "Irresponsible".Judith Andre, Leonard M. Fleck & Thomas Tomlinson - 2000 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (2):129-146.
    : New genetic technologies continue to emerge that allow us to control the genetic endowment of future children. Increasingly the claim is made that it is morally "irresponsible (...)" for parents to fail to use such technologies when they know their possible children are at risk for a serious genetic disorder. We believe such charges are often unwarranted. Our goal in this article is to offer a careful conceptual analysis of the language of irresponsibility in an effort to encourage more care in its use. Two of our more important sub-claims are: A fair judgment of genetic irresponsibility necessarily requires a thick background description of the specific reproductive choice; and there is no necessary connection between an act's being morally wrong and its being irresponsible. These are distinct judgments requiring distinct justifications. (shrink)
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  20. Prostitution and Sexual Autonomy: Making Sense of the Prohibition of Prostitution.Scott A. Anderson - 2002 - Ethics 112 (4):748-780.
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  21. Sex Under Pressure: Jerks, Boorish Behavior, and Gender Hierarchy[REVIEW]Scott A. Anderson - 2005 - Res Publica 11 (4):349-369.
    Pressuring someone into having sex would seem to differ in significant ways from pressuring someone into investing in ones business or buying an expensive bauble. In (...)affirming this claim, I take issue with a recent essay by Sarah Conly (‘Seduction, Rape, and Coercion’, Ethics, October 2004), who thinks that pressuring into sex can be helpfully evaluated by analogy to these other instances of using pressure. Drawing upon work by Alan Wertheimer, the leading theorist of coercion, she argues that so long as pressuring does not amount to coercing someone into having sex, her consent to sex answers the important ethical questions about it. In this essay, I argue that to understand the real significance of pressuring into sex, we need to appeal to background considerations, especially the male-dominant gender hierarchy, which renders sexual pressuring different from its non-sexual analogues. Treating pressure to have sex like any other sort of interpersonal pressure obscures the role such sexual pressure might play in supporting gender hierarchy, and fails to explain why pressure by men against women is more problematic than pressure by women against men. I suggest that men pressuring women to have sex differs from the reverse case because of at least two factors: (1) gendered social institutions which add to the pressures against women, and (2) the greater likelihood that men, not women, will use violence if denied, and the lesser ability of women compared to men to resist such violence without harm. (shrink)
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  22. The Alleged Incompatibility of Business and Medical Ethics.Judith Andre - 1999 - HEC Forum 11 (4):288-292.
    Business Ethics and medical ethics are in principle compatible: In particular, the tools of business ethics can be useful to those doing healthcare ethics. Health care could (...)
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  23. Disenchantment and Modernity: The Mirror of Technique.Ian H. Angus - 1983 - Human Studies 6 (1):141 - 166.
    A critical analysis of Alfred Schuetz' conception of rationality based upon Edmund Husserl's phenomenology.
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  24. Nietzsche's Critique of Utilitarianism.Jonny Anomaly - 2005 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 29 (29):1-15.
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  25.  12
    Possible M-Diagrams of Models of Arithmetic.Andrew Arana - 2005 - In Stephen Simpson (ed.), Reverse Mathematics 2001.
    In this paper I begin by extending two results of Solovay; the first characterizes the possible Turing degrees of models of True Arithmetic (TA), the complete first- (...)order theory of the standard model of PA, while the second characterizes the possible Turing degrees of arbitrary completions of P. I extend these two results to characterize the possible Turing degrees of m-diagrams of models of TA and of arbitrary complete extensions of PA. I next give a construction showing that the conditions Solovay identified for his characterization of degrees of models of arbitrary completions of PA cannot be dropped (I showed that these conditions cannot be simplified in the paper. (shrink)
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  26.  20
    Review of S. Feferman's in the Light of Logic[REVIEW]Andrew Arana - 2005 - Mathematical Intelligencer 27 (4).
    We review Solomon Feferman's 1998 essay collection In The Light of Logic (Oxford University Press).
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  27. Dutch Books, Additivity, and Utility Theory.Brad Armendt - 1993 - Philosophical Topics 21 (1):1-20.
    One guide to an argument's significance is the number and variety of refutations it attracts. By this measure, the Dutch book argument has considerable importance.2 Of (...) course this measure alone is not a sure guide to locating arguments deserving of our attentionif a decisive refutation has really been given, we are better off pursuing other topics. But the presence of many and varied counterarguments at least suggests that either the refutations are controversial, or that their target admits of more than one interpretation, or both. The main point of this paper is to focus on a way of understanding the Dutch Book argument (DBA) that avoids many of the well-known criticisms, and to consider how it fares against an important criticism that still remains: the objection that the DBA presupposes value-independence of bets. (shrink)
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  28. Is There a Dutch Book Argument for Probability Kinematics?Brad Armendt - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (4):583-588.
    Dutch Book arguments have been presented for static belief systems and for belief change by conditionalization. An argument is given here that a rule for belief change (...)
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  29. The Identity Crisis in Dance.Adina Armelagos & Mary Sirridge - 1978 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 37 (2):129-139.
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  30. The Happy Philosopher--a Counterexample to Plato's Proof.Simon H. Aronson - 1972 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 10 (4):383-398.
    The author argues that Platosproofthat happiness follows justice has a fatal flawbecause the philosopher king in Platos Republic is itself a counter (...)example. (shrink)
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  31. The Role of Consent in Sado-Masochistic Practices.Nafsika Athanassoulis - 2002 - Res Publica 8 (2):141-155.
    In 1993 the Law Lords upheld the original conviction of five men under the 1861 Offences Against the Person Act for participating in sado-masochistic practices. Although (...)the five men were fully consenting adults, the Law Lords held that consent did not constitute a defence to acts of violence within a sado-masochistic context. This paper examines the judgements in this case and argues that sado-masochistic practices are no different from the known exceptions cited by the court to the idea that consent is no defence to violence (sport, parental chastisement and surgery). It also argues that if we can make sense of rape as a non-consensual, violent act, expressed through sex, then we can make sense of sado-masochism as a consensual sexual act, expressed through violence. (shrink)
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  32.  52
    Peirce, Perry and the Lost History of Critical Referentialism.Albert Atkin - 2008 - Philosophia 36 (3):313-326.
    This paper traces a lost genealogical connection between Charles S. Peirces later theory of signs and contemporary work in the philosophy of language by John Perry. (...)As is shown, despite some differences, both accounts offer what might be termed a multi-level account of meaning. Moreover, it is claimed that by adopting aPeircian turnin his theory, Perry might overcome alleged shortcomings in his account of cognitive significance. (shrink)
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  33. Blind Man's Bluff: Examining the Basic Belief Apologetic.Guy Axtell - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 130 (1):131--152.
    Today we find philosophical naturalists and Christian theists both expressing an interest in virtue epistemology, while starting out from vastly different assumptions. What can be done to (...)
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  34. Two for the Show: Anti-Luck and Virtue Epistemologies in Consonance.Guy Axtell - 2007 - Synthese 158 (3):363 - 383.
    This essay extends my side of a discussion begun earlier with Duncan Pritchard, the recent author of Epistemic Luck.Pritchards work contributes significantly to improving thediagnostic (...) appealof a neo-Moorean philosophical response to radical scepticism. While agreeing with Pritchard in many respects, the paper questions the need for his concession to the sceptic that the neo-Moorean is capable at best of recovering “‘bruteexternalist knowledge”. The paper discusses and directly responds to a dilemma that Pritchard poses for virtue epistemologies (VE). It also takes issue with Pritchardsmerely safety-basedalternative. Ultimately, however, the criticisms made here of Pritchards dilemma and its underlying contrast ofanti-luckandvirtueepistemologies are intended to help realize his own aspirations for a better diagnosis of radical scepticism to inform a still better neo-Moorean response. (shrink)
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  35. Are Frege Cases Exceptions to Intentional Generalizations?Murat Aydede & Philip Robbins - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):1-22.
    This piece criticizes Fodor's argument (in The Elm and the Expert, 1994) for the claim that Frege cases should be treated as exceptions to (broad) psychological (...)generalizations rather than as counterexamples. (shrink)
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  36.  98
    Labeled Calculi and Finite-Valued Logics.Matthias Baaz, Christian G. Fermüller, Gernot Salzer & Richard Zach - 1998 - Studia Logica 61 (1):7-33.
    A general class of labeled sequent calculi is investigated, and necessary and sufficient conditions are given for when such a calculus is sound and complete for a (...)
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  37.  49
    Almost Indiscernible Twins.H. E. Baber - 1992 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (2):365-382.
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  38. Nietzsche and Eros Between the Devil and God's Deep Blue Sea: The Problem of the Artist as Actor-Jew-Woman.Babette Babich - 2000 - Continental Philosophy Review 33 (2):159-188.
    In a single aphorism in The Gay Science, Nietzsche arraysThe Problem of the Artistin a reticulated constellation. Addressing every member of the excluded grouping of (...)
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  39. The Genealogy of Morals and Right Reading: On the Nietzschean Aphorism and the Art of the Polemic.Babette Babich - 2006 - In Christa Acampora (ed.), Nietzsche’s On the Genealogy of Morals: Critical Essays. Lanham, MD 20706, USA: pp. 177-190.
    This essay is dedicated to elaborating some of the stylistic elements at work in Nietzsche's polemical book, On The Genealogy of Morals with particular attention to (...)the nature of the aphorism from its inception in ancient Greek literaure, Nietzsche's specific deployment of the aphorism as such, including Nietzsche's argument structure and rhetorical technique as well as the language of Greek and Jewish antiquity, master and slave. -/- In: Christa Davis Acampora, ed., Nietzsches On the Genealogy of Morals: Critical Essays (Lanham, Md., Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), pp. 177-190. (shrink)
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  40. Toleration Vs. Doctrinal Evil in Our Time.Jovan Babić - 2004 - The Journal of Ethics 8 (3):225-250.
    Our time is characterized by what seems like an unprecedented process of intense global homogenization. This reality provides the context for exploring the nature and value of (...)
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  41. Divine and Mortal Motivation: On the Movement of Life in Aristotle and Heidegger.Jussi Backman - 2005 - Continental Philosophy Review 38 (3-4):241-261.
    The paper discusses Heidegger's early notion of themovedness of life” (Lebensbewegtheit) and its intimate connection with Aristotle's concept of movement (kinēsis). Heidegger's aim in (...)
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  42. Conscious Awareness of Retrieval: An Exploration of the Cortical Connectivity.Rajendra D. Badgaiyan - 2005 - International Journal of Psychophysiology 55 (2):257-262.
    A review of the patterns of brain activation observed in implicit and explicit memory tasks indicates that during conscious retrieval studied items are first retrieved nonconsciously and (...)
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  43. Daniel Dennett. Reconciling Science and Our Self-Conception. By Matthew[REVIEW]David Bain - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (219):369-371.
    Over 35 years, Daniel Dennett has articulated a rich and expansive philosophical outlook. There have been elaborations, refinements, and changes of mind, exposi- tory and substantive. This (...)
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  44. The Location of Pains.David Bain - 2007 - Philosophical Papers 36 (2):171-205.
    Perceptualists say that having a pain in a body part consists in perceiving the part as instantiating some property. I argue that perceptualism makes better sense of (...)
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  45. Acquaintance and the Mind-Body Problem.Katalin Balog - 2012 - In Simone Gozzano & Christopher S. Hill (eds.), New Perspectives on Type Identity: The Mental and the Physical. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16.
    In this paper I begin to develop an account of the acquaintance that each of us has with our own conscious states and processes. The account is (...)
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  46. Classifying Contingency in the Social Sciences: Diachronic, Synchronic, and Deterministic Contingency.Clint Ballinger - unknown
    This article makes three claims concerning the concept of contingency. First, we argue that the word contingency is used in far too many ways to be useful. (...)
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  47. Phenomenal Judgment and the HOT Theory: Comments on David RosenthalsConsciousness, Content, and Metacognitive Judgments”. [REVIEW]Katalin Balog - 2000 - Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):215-219.
    In this commentary I criticize David Rosenthals higher order thought theory of consciousness . This is one of the best articulated philosophical accounts of consciousness available. The (...)
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  48. Conceivability, Possibility, and the Mind-Body Problem.Katalin Balog - 1999 - Philosophical Review 108 (4):497-528.
    This paper was chosen by The Philosophers Annual as one of the ten best articles appearing in print in 2000. Reprinted in Volume XXIII of The (...)Philosophers Annual. In his very influential book David Chalmers argues that if physicalism is true then every positive truth is a priori entailed by the full physical descriptionthis is calledthe a priori entailment thesisbut ascriptions of phenomenal consciousness are not so entailed and he concludes that Physicalism is false. As he puts it, “zombiesare metaphysically possible. I attempt to show that this argument is refuted by considering an analogous argument in the mouth of a zombie. The conclusion of this argument is false so one of the premises is false. I argue at length that this shows that the original conceivability argument also has a false premise and so is invalid. (shrink)
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  49. Determinism and the Antiquated Deontology of the Social Sciences.Clint Ballinger - unknown
    This article shows how the social sciences rejected hard determinism by the mid-twentieth century largely on the deontological basis that it is irreconcilable with social justice, (...)yet this rejection came just before a burst of creative development in consequentialist theories of social justice that problematize a facile rejection of determinism on moral grounds, a development that has seldom been recognized in the social sciences. Thus the current social science view of determinism and social justice is antiquated, ignoring numerous common and well-respected arguments within philosophy that hard determinism can be reconciled with a just society. We support this argument by briefly tracing the parallel development of stances on determinism in the social sciences and the deontological-consequentialist debate in philosophy. The article concludes with a brief consideration of deterministic consequentialist ethics, social justice, and the problems of egoism and altruism. (shrink)
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  50. Review: Thinking About Consciousness[REVIEW]Katalin Balog - 2004 - Mind 113 (452):774-778.
    Papineau in his book provides a detailed defense of physicalism via what has recently been dubbed thephenomenal concept strategy”. I share his enthusiasm for this approach. (...)
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