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Bhakti Madhava Puri
Bhakti Vedanta Institute of Spiritual Culture and Science
  1.  15
    Spiritual Biology: Reply to Critics - Part One.Bhakti Madhava Puri, Bhakti Niskama Shanta & Bhakti Vijnana Muni - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    We received several critical comments regarding the "The Science of Spiritual Biology." We reply to those criticisms in order to further clarify some of the important points that were made. It is only to be expected that a strong emotional response may be evoked by the revolution in scientific thinking that the modern paradigm of cognitive biology presents. We have to be prepared to accept that, and maintain the integrity of the scientific approach.
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  2.  14
    The Science of Spiritual Biology: Replies to Critics – Part 2.Bhakti Madhava Puri, Bhakti Niskama Shanta & Bhakti Vijnana Muni - 2013 - The Harmonizer.
    We received several critical comments regarding the "The Science of Spiritual Biology." We reply to those criticisms in order to further clarify some of the important points that were made. It is only to be expected that a strong emotional response may be evoked by the revolution in scientific thinking that the modern paradigm of cognitive biology presents. We have to be prepared to accept that, and maintain the integrity of the scientific approach.
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  3.  9
    The Science of Spiritual Biology.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    "Living systems are cognitive systems, and living as a process is a process of cognition." -H.R. Maturana, The Biology of Cognition (1970/1980) Just as the cell has gradually come to be understood as a highly regulated and unctionally integrated whole, so too is the biosphere now recognized as a finely balanced ecological whole in which local disturbances can create world-wide climatic catastrophe. The oversimplified ideas of biology that characterized the field in its immature beginning led to the theories of a (...)
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  4.  29
    Science of Religion - Hegel's Philosophy and God.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2011 - The Harmonizer.
    Religion is basically a consciousness or awareness of God. This means that Religion depends upon a difference between the finite subject or consciousness and the infinite object or God. This difference is maintained because of the way Man relates to God in religion, i.e. through feeling, love, etc. Philosophy is the scientific comprehension of Truth, in which an identity-in-difference is sought between the subject and object or concept and object. This is attained through thinking, and not through feeling. Religion and (...)
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  5.  23
    Summary of the Development of Consciousness From Sense-Certainty to Perception and Then to Understanding.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    In Sense-certainty, the being of the particular object of sense was found to belong to the universality - of consciousness. This relationship between the universal truth of the object and its sensuous determinate particularity is called the Thing of Perception, basically a Thing and its perceived properties. However, in perception it was concluded that the particular Thing is ultimately resolved into the unconditioned universality of the Understanding. Thus in both Sense-certainty and Perception the particular object or Thing proves to be (...)
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  6.  25
    Finite, Spurious Infinite, True Infinite.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2005 - GWFHegel.Org.
    A concise exposition of the development of the true infinite is found in Hegel's Encyclopedia Logic (EL92-95). It may be much easier to follow than the one given in the Science of Logic. The following paragraphs are from the Gerates, et al translation of that book, along with some parts of the "Additions" where I felt they were useful. At the end I give my interpretation of the development.
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  7.  19
    Summary of the First Two Chapters Of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    Sense-certainty is the consciousness that Truth (what is/being) lies in particular external objects. For example, considering that the mountain is true, the tree is true, and so on. But truth is not immediate. Truth is necessarily mediated, i.e. a result, implying that it is arrived at. Thus, if a crime is claimed against someone before a judge, the judge does not accept it immediately as true. The truth of the claim has to be established, arrived at, through due process of (...)
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  8.  24
    Subject and Object: The Principle of Distinction and Inseparability.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    One of the most important instances of distinct but inseparable entities is that of subject and object. When we carefully think about them, we realize that one term implies the other. In other words, a subject cannot possibly exist without a corresponding object otherwise we would never be able to talk about “subject.” In a similar way, an object can only be called an object because it is in relation to a subject. All opposites will in fact exhibit this same (...)
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  9.  18
    Scientific Platform of Knowing or Absolute Knowing.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2011 - The Harmonizer.
    Progress in philosophy means to understand and accept one point and from there go on to develop the next. The whole is made up of many parts just as a building is composed of many floors – we cannot take out one or more of the beginning floors and expect that the building can thereby be erected. The overall system of Hegel’s philosophy requires an understanding of each of the parts within it, especially the beginning steps. In the earlier articles (...)
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  10.  17
    The Logic of Life.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2008 - Science and Scientist.
    Modern science generally assumes that the same laws of logic apply to mechanical, chemical and biological entities alike because they are all ultimately material objects. This may seem to be so obvious that there would be no need to validate it -- experimentally or logically. In this article we would like to critically examine this assumption and show that from an experiential/observational level, as well as from a rational/logical level, it is not valid. This becomes apparent, for instance, when we (...)
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  11.  16
    A Detailed Summary of the First Two Chapters of Phenomenology.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    The nature of the philosophical description of consciousness requires a mode of reflection that is different from ordinary understanding, including most of what transpires in the name of philosophy. Therefore, it will be helpful to review once again the basic development that has been covered thus far in previous articles. The consciousness of Understanding deals with the aspects or the “in-so-far-as” perspective of things. It does not deal with things in their contradictory wholeness. Rational consciousness, however, deals with wholes that (...)
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  12.  16
    The Contradictions of Perceptual Consciousness That Lead to Resolution in its Next Stage of Subjective Evolution to Understanding.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    Previously it was found that the Thing is both One Thing and another Thing at the same time. The Understanding rejects such a contradiction but Reason accepts what comes before it and allows the necessity in thought to proceed to its own conclusion. The attempt to maintain distinctions such as essential vs. unessential, singleness vs. universality, etc. may appeal to what is called ‘ordinary common sense,’ but it can now be seen that they are really only abstractions from the actual (...)
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  13.  16
    Why Evolution is Not True.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2013 - The Harmonizer.
    Are physics and chemistry sufficient to provide a basis for a theory of everything? The worldview of materialist naturalism that forms the foundation of NeoDarwinian evolution, Big Bang cosmogony, and molecular biology in general has been subjected to challenge for its monumental failure to explain life, consciousness and other mind-related aspects of reality. Two recent books, Why Evolution is True by Jerry Coyne [1], and Thomas Nagel’s Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist NeoDarwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False (...)
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  14.  15
    Unity of Knowing and Truth.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2011 - The Harmonizer.
    To claim that there is a scientific Concept of knowledge may seem unfounded since it is only an assertion here at this point. We still have to demonstrate this claim. It will do no good to merely argue against the ideas of knowledge as instrument, etc. that may already be accepted since these are also unfounded assertions. What we will therefore actually do is to show that the Concept of knowledge is not a mere assertion like the others by turning (...)
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  15.  14
    Actualizing Movement of Thought.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2011 - The Harmonizer.
    The consciousness of sense-certainty proves itself to be dialectical. It starts out with the certainty that its object is a singular immediate being. But it is just this ‘singular immediate being’ that turns around into its opposite to become a universal – i.e. it is true not only for a single but all individual objects since everything is a ‘singular immediate being’. ‘Every individual is different’ because each has free will and is independent of others. If this is universally true (...)
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  16.  14
    A Unique Insight Into the Nature of "Knowing" and of the Concept.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    The purpose of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit is to demonstrate that the Concept is the underlying reality or Truth that lies hidden to ordinary knowing. Once the Concept is revealed it becomes the object of scientific development in his Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, but because of its absolute nature the Concept and its development are identical while different simultaneously. On the absolute platform opposites are identical in their differences, just as the absolute value |1| is the same as the (...)
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  17.  14
    Perception: Or the Thing and Deception.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    Consciousness in the form of sense-certainty wants to apprehend its particular object as being-there (existing). But as demonstrated in previous articles in this series, the only truth of sense-certainty is merely that something is, and because everything is, being is universal. Here it will be shown that perception is the consciousness of the universal as the truth of a particular being. And because universality is the very principle of perception, both object and the I are also universal. Because this universality (...)
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  18.  14
    The Truthful Comprehension of Reality.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2011 - The Harmonizer.
    The objective here will be to take the subject (ego) and object (thing) that are held fixed, separate and in opposition to each other by the understanding and explicitly show them to be dialectically related in the dynamical movement of thinking. The dialectical movement of thought was explained by example in the propositional statement, S is P. The movement of the unified Concept as a whole, in which the fixed subject and object are considered as mere moments, constitutes the basic (...)
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  19.  14
    What Moments of Thought Constitute the Activity of Perception?Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2012 - The Harmonizer.
    There are two sides to perceptual consciousness: consciousness and the Thing. Thus far the various thought-components constituent of theThing (the various moments of the Concept of Thing) have been observed. Now it is necessary to consider what thoughts consciousness, itself, experiences in the act of perceiving.
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  20.  18
    Hegel and Personalism.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2005 - GWFHegel.Org.
    As much as we may currently accept the Absolute as being Substance, to an equal degree we must now understand it as being Subject. Just as Spinoza shocked the age in which he taught that the Absolute was Substance, so too Hegel comes to shock our modern age with the Truth that Reality is Subject or Personality. "...alles darauf an, das Wahre nicht als Substanz, sondern eben so sehr als Subjekt aufzufassen und auszudrucken." "...everything turns on comprehending and expresssing the (...)
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  21.  13
    Consciousness is the Concept of Itself.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2011 - The Harmonizer.
    Ordinary consciousness absorbed in natural life is unable on its own to go beyond its immediate existence. Only if it is somehow forced out of its complacency by something other than itself can it be raised beyond itself, such that this being torn from itself is its death — its negation. However, because consciousness is for itself its own Concept, it is immediately both Concept and object for itself. Thus its original immediacy (taken as object) is overcome or negated by (...)
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  22.  12
    Early Life on Earth.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2013 - The Harmonizer.
    Origin of life studies have presented one of the most serious challenges to the mechanistic conception that life can be explained scientifically as a mere product of chemistry and physics. Hypotheses about the origin of life can be divided into two categories: (1) biogenesis – life comes from life, and (2) abiogenesis – life comes from non-living matter. The theory of the spontaneous generation of life from inanimate matter had been held even by the ancient Greeks and by numerous scientists (...)
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  23.  12
    Idols of the Mind Vs. True Reality.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2015 - Darwin Under Siege.
    The analytical understanding cannot deal with integral wholes and therefore cannot understand the soul or God. The material body is illusory in the sense that it cannot be understood in its true identity without knowing its relationship to God. Analyzing its composition in terms of separated molecules or neurons is also illusory. To understand how to go from an untrue or partially true part to its truth in the whole a method developed by Hegel called conceptual thinking is required. Reproduction (...)
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  24.  12
    Movement of Thinking.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    Conceptual thinking is form and content simultaneously. It is not that thinking is going on outside of or external to some fixed material substance. That idea would be formalistic thinking – abstract thinking or material thinking. Hegel calls thinking that goes on in its own realm, outside of that which it is thinking about, reflective thinking or reflection. When you look into a mirror you see your own reflection. A reflection is something that comes back to you – the active (...)
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  25.  15
    A Scientific Understanding of Concept.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    Hegel considers the Concept (in German Begriffe) to be a spiritual entity - the soul, if you will, of a thing. Looked at in another way it may be considered (although not precisely) like the essence of a thing. It is what makes the thing whatever it is. Thus if we took the Concept of a room (let’s say “roomness”) away from a thing we would no longer have a room but something else. In this sense the Concept is essential (...)
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  26.  15
    Concerning the Relation Between Man and God in Hegel's Philosophy.Bhakti Madhava Puri & Ken Foldes - 2005 - GWFHegel.Org.
    Ken Foldes and I agreed to present what we consider an important controversy concerning the actual interpretation of Hegelian philosophy as regards the nature of the relationship between Man and God. Ken wants to argue for the oneness of God and Man, with the unity and exclusive Being of God as the Absolute Truth, making all being other than God illusory. On the other hand, I want to show the simultaneous identity and difference of Man and God dynamically integrated as (...)
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  27.  15
    SCIENCE AND SCIENTIST - A Comprehensive Worldview.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2009 - Darwin Under Siege.
    The Western world has led the development of material science for over 200 years. But they have reached an impasse in confronting the problem of consciousness. Scientific knowledge requires a scientist, but regarding knowledge concerning the scientist, they must remain silent. India has always emphasized knowledge of the conscious self or atma. Vedanta-sutra begins with the aphorism “athatho brahma jijnasa” – now, therefore, inquire about brahma (pure consciousness). Even in the West, the Greek philosopher Socrates stated, “Above all else know (...)
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  28.  11
    Daring to Defy Darwin.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2013 - Darwin Under Siege.
    “Indeed, we now know that the proportion of genetic sequences on earth that belongs to visible organisms is negligible. Furthermore, only 15% of the genetic sequences found in the samples from the environment and from feces analyzed in metagenomic studies belong to the three domains of microbes currently recognized in the tree-of-life framework – bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. Viruses contain another 15-30% of these genetic sequences.” This means that the majority of unidentified genetic sequences pose an unresolved problem. Where do (...)
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  29.  11
    Embryology, Developmental Biology, Evo-Devo.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2013 - The Harmonizer.
    The study of organisms within the range of their existence from fertilization to birth is referred to as embryology. The process of progressive change during that period is called development. That development does not stop at birth but continues on throughout the entire life-span of the organism as the process of growth and decay — catabolism, anabolism, and metabolism. The study of this entire range of life has recently become known as developmental biology. The belief that the development from an (...)
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  30.  7
    Genetics, Epigenetics, Paragenetics: Getting Closer to Life.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2014 - The Harmonizer.
    Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was the first to explain that certain 'traits' were inherited in plants from one generation to the next. These would later become known as genes. Frederich Miescher in 1869 analyzed a substance from the nucleus of cells, which he therefore called nuclein. Further study of nuclein revealed that it contained elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorous, with a specific ratio of nitrogen to phosphorous. Then in 1878 Albrecht Kossel determined that nuclein contained nucleic acid, from which (...)
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  31.  11
    Difference Between Argumentative and Conceptual Thinking.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2011 - The Harmonizer.
    Argumentative thinking has two aspects, viz. positive and negative. Such thinking effectively ignores the content since the actual object is considered “out there” beyond the subjective thinking that is going on “in here” or inside oneself or the finite mind. No explicit connection is established between the subjective and objective worlds or realms. This type of thinking is of necessity concerned only with its own knowing or with itself, thus Hegel calls this vanity. In this sense it is indifferent to (...)
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  32.  11
    Empirically Influenced Thinking, Pure Rational Thinking, and Absolute Knowing.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    If we start out with the assumption that the empirical world is real then we leave philosophy behind from the start. Descartes established the real Copernican revolution in philosophy when he began with “Doubt.” This doubt was directed toward everything familiar including even the world of experience. The only certainty he allowed was the being of himself as thinking. From this he wanted to deduce everything else. This is the spirit of philosophy. If we START with the world as given, (...)
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  33.  11
    Personality is the Root of All Science and Philosophy.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2011 - The Harmonizer.
    It is best to study Hegel as he presents himself in the context of his own writings. In this way we allow Hegel to teach us what the Science of Philosophy is, and how, through such Science, the Absolute Truth reveals or rationally unfolds itself, although this may challenge, in a radical and transformative way, the accepted ideas and methods we may currently have of philosophy and science. By taking the approach of simply following Hegel’s thought in its own development, (...)
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  34.  14
    Scientific Humility: Scientific Honesty – Hypothesis and Science.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2009 - Darwin Under Siege.
    It is not that scientists make an hypothesis first, and then try to find the data to fit that hypothesis. Rather, the process is first observation, then an hypothes is made to describe the data, then conclude that the data has been described by the hypothesis. But this is not an explanation of the phenomenon. It is merely a description of the data in different terms, usually mathematics. It is essentially a tautology. Thus to observe various points and connect them (...)
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  35.  14
    The Science of Happiness.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2007 - Science and Scientist.
    Modern science only studies that which is immediately given to our senses - that which we call matter. But there would be no such thing as science if there were only matter or existence. Science requires that in addition to existence there be cognition of existence, or consciousness. Without consciousness of existence, science would never come into being. Thus we must admit that at least two features of reality are necessary for scientific knowledge - (1) existence or being and (2) (...)
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  36.  10
    The Organic Whole: A Conception Worthy of Biological Life.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2013 - The Harmonizer.
    All the central assumptions of the Modern Synthesis (Neo-Darwinism) have been disproven. [1, 2] An article with the title, "Rocking the foundations of molecular genetics,” appearing in the prestigious Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences at the end of 2012 [3] would have not been possible a decade ago. Groundbreaking experimental evidence of epigenetic maternal inheritance over several generations was published in the same journal, throwing the whole foundation of 21st century molecular genetics into question. Neo-Darwinism attributed genetic change (...)
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  37.  10
    Worlds in Collision: The Stability of the Solar System.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2013 - The Harmonizer.
    Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) discovered a problem in theoretical physics that is still unresolved to this day. He recognized that the periodic forces of gravity produced by the planets of the solar system degrade their orbits over long time spans, to produce either collisions of planets, ejections of planets into interstellar space, or incineration in the Sun. Although the calculated effects may be small for a given instant of time, over millions of years those small effects accumulate to produce problems (...)
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  38.  13
    Connection Between Determination and Negation.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    Niels Bohr gave us the model of the atom as having a central nucleus around which electrons were circulating in stable orbits. He also gave us the complementarity principle that states that the mutually exclusive wave and corpuscular nature of light were not merely contradictory but complementary descriptions. Field theory considers light as a continuous wave phenomenon with a wavelength and frequency, while quantum theory considers its corpuscular nature as a discrete packet of energy called a photon. Thus we actually (...)
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  39.  13
    The Role of the "We" in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2005 - GWFHegel.Org.
    This article will explain that the difficulty in understanding the role of the "We" in the Phenomenology arises from the confusion between the two distinct ways that consciousness appears in its basic nature, where "consciousness is, on the one hand, consciousness of the object, and on the other, consciousness of itself" (PhdG §85). Firstly, there is consciousness of an object, let's call it C(O), which also holds that there is a distinction between itself, C(O), and the object in-itself, "O." Thus (...)
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  40.  10
    Self-Consciousness in the Form of Sense Certainty.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2011 - The Harmonizer.
    The object of study is consciousness. The activity of consciousness is called knowing. The study of a subject may only begin with immediacy, because a beginning implies that there is no prior mediation, i.e. no explicit differences or determinations. Such a beginning is mere being — what immediately is. Being as such is pure generality. Since consciousness is not a physical object that appears before the eyes like a tree, it has to be treated as an object of thought or, (...)
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  41.  12
    The Scientific Understanding of Mercy.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    The work of harmonizing and integrating the various fields of knowledge is not left to the individual as much as it is already accomplished in and by the Complete Whole. Rather, the individual must become self-forgetful, which is achieved anyhow in the universalizing activity of science. And more than self-forgetful, the individual becomes a self-sacrificing or dedicating unit within the self-realizing Absolute. It is here that entrusting oneself to the intelligence and reason of the True, once it is scientifically realized, (...)
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  42.  11
    An Introduction to the Science of Subjectivity.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    We may call this the problem of thought and being, where thought represents the subjective and being the objective component in this interactive event. In order to resolve this problem we have to look more carefully at the situation to make sure we understand what is going on more clearly. Let us take the example of "seeing" as something that may be easier to understand. Between (1) "seeing" and the (2) "thing seen" we may at first think we have two (...)
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  43.  11
    Being and Beyond.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    Being is a peculiar concept since it seems to be associated with everything yet it is not any of those things itself. In other words, every thing has being - but being is not any of those things. To say that something “is” means that it has being. A tree is, the color red is, even a thought is or has being, yet each of these things - a tree, a color, a thought - is different from being. They all (...)
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  44.  11
    Do We Have a Theory of Evolution?Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2009 - Darwin Under Siege.
    The neo-Darwinian theory of genetic random mutation and Natural Selection, does nothing to explain speciation. Thus, what has been called "natural selection" has come under much scrutiny and critique in recent times. The problem is that natural selection requires the existence of a stable array of species from which selection can be made. So natural selection does not perform the speciation, only the selection after speciation has occurred. The activity of creating new species must therefore lie in the random mutations (...)
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  45.  11
    Organic Whole.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2009 - Darwin Under Siege.
    There is a nested hierarchy of wholes that characterizes reality, and especially life. The most fundamental principle is that Reality in the Vedantic/Bhagavat conception is based on Personality, as mentioned in the very first aphorism of the Bhagavat Purana, “janmady asya yatho nvayat itaratas charteshu abhijnah svarat.” Here and in many other scriptures the foundation or origin of everything is centered upon the abhijna or cognizant (conscious) primordial Personality of Godhead. Modern science in the West has become centered on matter (...)
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  46.  11
    The Concept (Soul) in Living Organisms.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - Darwin Under Siege.
    In addition to any content, another essential element must be the order or form of that content. Content implies a container. Generally, the container is not thought of as having any determinate influence upon the content. This is a mistake. If we have a bowl-shaped container, the marbles at the bottom will form a concave shape. A square-shaped container will exhibit the marbles in a planar pattern. Thus the container does influence the order or form of its content. Similarly, the (...)
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  47.  11
    Vedantic Conception of the Origin of Life.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - The Harmonizer.
    The first hint of how to begin our inquiry is given in the second aphorism of Vedanta-sutra. Janmadasya yatah. Janma means birth, and asya refers to all that has been created from Brahman or the original source - which is spirit. Brahman means Spirit or God. It is not a matter of merely knowing what is immediately present before us. We want to know where it all comes from. This is actually very practical if we want to properly understand anything. (...)
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  48.  8
    Darwinism Dead at 150.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2010 - Darwin Under Siege.
    Descartes laid the philosophical groundwork for the modern scientific period by separating subjective cognition from objective bodies, thereby also dividing epistemology from ontology reducing knowing to indifferent “observation.” This is the perspective of consciousness and its object, of which material science only imperfectly studies the object. In reality these two are not separated but dialectically related and sublated in the higher comprehending original unity of self-consciousness. Physical scientists fail to study these higher categories of reality and are therefore left with (...)
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  49.  10
    Consider a Flower.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2005 - GWFHegel.Org.
    Hegel often uses the example of a flower in explaining the significance of philosophy. A flower is, of course, a finite existence and therefore not a proper object of philosophy, but it does serve as a ready example to illustrate its principles.
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  50.  9
    The Concept.Bhakti Madhava Puri - 2005 - GWFHegel.Org.
    In the following article I present some general features of the Concept that may be understood without resorting to dialectical logic. Primarily, it is intended for beginning students of Hegel's philosophy, and also to provide an intuitive grasp of the Concept for those who may be struggling to understand what Hegel means by this important term that is so central to the philosophical science of the Absolute. Hegel considered that Aristotle also analyzed the Concept without dialectics, so it is shown (...)
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