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  1. Regulating the International Surrogacy Market:The Ethics of Commercial Surrogacy in the Netherlands and India.Jaden Blazier & Rien Janssens - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (4):621-630.
    It is unclear what proper remuneration for surrogacy is, since countries disagree and both commercial and altruistic surrogacy have ethical drawbacks. In the presence of cross-border surrogacy, these ethical drawbacks are exacerbated. In this article, we explore what would be ethical remuneration for surrogacy, and suggest regulations for how to ensure this in the international context. A normative ethical analysis of commercial surrogacy is conducted. Various arguments against commercial surrogacy are explored, such as exploitation and commodification of surrogates, reproductive capacities, (...)
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  • Fiduciary Duties and Commercial Surrogacy.Emma A. Ryman - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Western Ontario
    Since the 1980’s, surrogacy has become a popular reproductive alternative for individuals experiencing infertility. The ethical and legal analyses of surrogacy have been rich and varied. Some bioethicists have charged the commercial surrogacy industry with the exploitation of global southern women or with the impermissible commodification of children and women’s reproductive capacities. Others have praised the potential for economic empowerment and bodily autonomy that surrogacy may accord to women. However, throughout these explorations of the ethics of surrogacy, comparatively little attention (...)
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  • Exploitation, Structural Injustice, and the Cross-Border Trade in Human Ova.Monique Deveaux - 2016 - Journal of Global Ethics 12 (1):48-68.
    ABSTRACTGlobal demand for human ova in in vitro fertilization has led to its expansion in countries with falling average incomes and rising female unemployment. Paid egg donation in the context of national, regional, and global inequalities has the potential to exploit women who are socioeconomically vulnerable, and indeed there is ample evidence that it does. Structural injustices that render women in middle-income countries – and even some high-income countries – economically vulnerable contribute to a context of ‘omissive coercion’ that is (...)
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  • Commercial Contract Pregnancy in India, Judgment, and Resistance to Oppression.Katy Fulfer - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (4):846-861.
    Feminist scholars have done much to identify oppressive forces within transnational commercial contract pregnancy and its social context that may coerce women into becoming gestational laborers. Feminists have also been careful not to depict gestational laborers as merely passive victims of oppression, though there is disagreement about the degree to which contract pregnancy offers opportunities for agency. In this article I consider how women who sell gestational labor may be agents against their oppression. I make explicit connections between resistance and (...)
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  • Reflections on Autonomy in Travel for Cross Border Reproductive Care.Anita Stuhmcke - 2021 - Monash Bioethics Review 39 (1):1-27.
    Travel for reproductive health care has become a widespread global phenomenon. Within the field, the decision to travel to seek third parties to assist with reproduction is widely assumed to be autonomous. However there has been scant research exploring the application of the principle of autonomy to the experience of the cross-border traveller. Seeking to contribute to the growing, but still small, body of sociological bioethics research, this paper maps the application of the ethical principle of autonomy to the lived (...)
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  • Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements.Stephen Wilkinson - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):125-145.
    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? In the light of the answer to, how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is (...)
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  • Feminism and Sex Trafficking: Rethinking Some Aspects of Autonomy and Paternalism.Diana Tietjens Meyers - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (3):427-441.
    This paper argues that potential cases of oppression, such as sex trafficking, can sometimes comprise autonomous choices by the trafficked individuals. This issue still divides radical from liberal feminists, with the former wanting to ‘rescue’ the ‘victims’ and the latter insisting that there might be good reasons for ‘hiding from the rescuers.’ This article presents new arguments for the liberal approach and raises two demands: first, help organizations should be run by affected women and be open-minded about whether or not (...)
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  • Reasoning From the Uterus: Casanova, Women's Agency, and the Philosophy of Birth.Stella Villarmea - 2021 - Hypatia 36 (1):22-41.
    The emerging area of philosophy of birth is invaluable, first, to diagnose fallacious assumptions about the relation between the womb and reason, and, ultimately, to challenge potentially damaging narratives with major impact on birth care. With its analysis of eighteenth-century epistemic and medical discussions about the role of the uterus in women's reasoning, this article supports two arguments: first, that women's “flawed thinking” was a premise drawn by many modern intellectual men, one that was presented as based upon empirical evidence; (...)
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  • When Racism Comes in Gray.Ellen K. Feder - 2020 - Philosophy Today 64 (4):985-990.
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  • Intersectionality and the Ethics of Transnational Commercial Surrogacy.Serene J. Khader - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (1):68-90.
    Critics of transnational commercial surrogacy frequently call our attention to the race, class, and cultural background of surrogates in the global South. Consider the following sampling from the critics: "the women having babies for rich Westerners have been pimped by their husbands and are powerless to resist" (Bindel 2011); our "rules of decency seem to differ when the women in question are living in abject poverty half a world away" (Warner 2008); and we should worry that "women of color are (...)
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  • The World’s Not Ready for This: Globalizing Selective Technologies.Lauren Jade Martin - 2014 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 39 (3):432-455.
    The United States has become an ideal marketplace for those seeking selective technologies that are illegal, inaccessible, or unavailable in their own countries. Specifically, technologies such as commercial egg donation, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and sex selection are prohibited or highly regulated in many nations, but remain legal and largely unregulated in the United States. Based on in-depth interviews with US fertility industry providers, including physicians and egg donor and surrogate brokers, this article analyzes how the ideologies of genetic determinism and (...)
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  • Feminism and Gender.Anca Gheaus - 2015 - In Andrew Fiala (ed.), Bloomsbury Companion to Political Philosophy. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 167-183.
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  • Feminism, Capitalism, and Ecology.Johanna Oksala - 2018 - Hypatia 33 (2):216-234.
    This article critically assesses the different ways of theoretically connecting feminism, capitalism, and ecology. I take the existing tradition of socialist ecofeminism as my starting point and outline two different ways that the connections among capitalism, the subordination of women, and the destruction of the environment have been made in this literature: materialist ecofeminism and Marxist ecofeminism. I will demonstrate the political and theoretical advantages of these positions in comparison to some of the earlier forms of theorizing the relationship between (...)
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  • Race and a Transnational Reproductive Caste System: Indian Transnational Surrogacy.Amrita Banerjee - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):113-128.
    When it comes to discourses around women's labor in global contexts, we need feminist philosophical frameworks that take the intersections of gender, race, and global capitalism seriously in order to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of women's lives within global processes. Women of color feminist philosophy can bring much to the table in such discussions. In this essay, I theorize about a concrete instance of global women's labor: transnational commercial gestational surrogacy. By introducing a “racialized gender” analysis into the philosophical (...)
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  • Current Perspectives on the Ethics of Selling International Surrogacy Support Services.Patricia Fronek - 2018 - Medicolegal and Bioethics:11-20.
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  • Intersectionality and the Ethics of Transnational Commercial Surrogacy.Serene J. Khader - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (1):68-90.
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  • Transnational Gestational Surrogacy: Does It Have to Be Exploitative?Jeffrey Kirby - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (5):24-32.
    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings , is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of (...)
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  • Global Surrogacy: Exploitation to Empowerment.Vida Panitch - 2013 - Journal of Global Ethics 9 (3):329-343.
    Journal of Global Ethics, Volume 9, Issue 3, Page 329-343, December 2013.
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