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A consequence relation \ is monotonic iff for premise sets \ and conclusion \, if \, \, then \; and nonmonotonic if this fails in some instance. More plainly, a consequence relation is monotonic when whatever is entailed by a premise set remains entailed by any of its supersets. From the High Middle Ages through the Early Modern period, consequence in theology is assumed to be monotonic. Concomitantly, to the degree the argument formulated by Anselm at Proslogion 2–4 is taken (...) 

Should objects count as necessarily having certain properties, despite their not having those properties when they do not exist? For example, should a cat that passes out of existence, and so no longer is a cat, nonetheless count as necessarily being a cat? In this essay I examine different ways of adapting Aldo Bressan’s MLν so that it can accommodate an affirmative answer to these questions. Anil Gupta, in The Logic of Common Nouns, creates a number of languages that have (...) 

This paper follows Part I of our essay on caseintensional firstorder logic (CIFOL; Belnap and Müller (2013)). We introduce a framework of branching histories to take account of indeterminism. Our system BHCIFOL adds structure to the cases, which in Part I formed just a set: a case in BHCIFOL is a moment/history pair, specifying both an element of a partial ordering of moments and one of the total courses of events (extending all the way into the future) that that moment (...) 

This is Part I of a twopart essay introducing caseintensional firstorder logic, an easytouse, uniform, powerful, and useful combination of first order logic with modal logic resulting from philosophical and technical modifications of Bressan’s General interpreted modal calculus. CIFOL starts with a set of cases; each expression has an extension in each case and an intension, which is the function from the cases to the respective caserelative extensions. Predication is intensional; identity is extensional. Definite descriptions are contextindependent terms, and lambdapredicates (...) 

This paper follows Part I of our essay on caseintensional ﬁrstorder logic. We introduce a framework of branching histories to take account of indeterminism. Our system BHCIFOL adds structure to the cases, which in Part I formed just a set: a case in BHCIFOL is a moment/history pair, specifying both an element of a partial ordering of moments and one of the total courses of events that that moment is part of. This framework allows us to deﬁne the familiar Ockhamist (...) 

This paper gives an overview of logicophilosophical issues of time and determinism. After a brief review of historical roots and 20th century developments, three current research areas are discussed: the definition of determinism, spacetime indeterminism, and the temporality of individual things and their possibilities. 

