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Mind and Emergence: From Quantum to Consciousness

Oxford University Press UK (2004)

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  1. In Defence of Aristotle on Character: Toward a Synthesis of Recent Psychology, Neuroscience and the Thought of Michael Polanyi.Paul Lewis - 2012 - Journal of Moral Education 41 (2):155-170.
    In the United States, various forms of character education have become popular in both elementary and professional education. They are often criticised, however, for their reliance on Aristotle, who is said to be problematic at several points. In response to these criticisms, I argue that Aristotle?s ancient account of character and its formation remains viable in light of work over the last decade in psychology and the neurosciences. However, some lacunae remain that can at least be partially filled with insights (...)
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  • The Body and the Place of Physical Activity in Education: Some Classical Perspectives.Jānis Ozoliņš - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (9):1-16.
    The place of physical education has been contested in recent times and it has been argued that its justification as part of school curricula seems to be marginal at best. Such justifications as have been offered, propose that physical education is justified because of its contribution to moral development or because it is capable of being studied as a theoretical subject. Other justifications have centred on the embodied nature of the human being. In this article we draw on some classical (...)
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  • Cells as Irreducible Wholes: The Failure of Mechanism and the Possibility of an Organicist Revival.Michael J. Denton, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel & Michael Legge - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):31-52.
    According to vitalism, living organisms differ from machines and all other inanimate objects by being endowed with an indwelling immaterial directive agency, ‘vital force,’ or entelechy . While support for vitalism fell away in the late nineteenth century many biologists in the early twentieth century embraced a non vitalist philosophy variously termed organicism/holism/emergentism which aimed at replacing the actions of an immaterial spirit with what was seen as an equivalent but perfectly natural agency—the emergent autonomous activity of the whole organism. (...)
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  • Extending the Psychology of Religion: A Call for Exploration of Psychological Universals, More Inclusive Approaches, and Comprehensive Models.Helmut K. Reich - 2008 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie 30 (1):115-134.
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  • Personalistic Theism, Divine Embodiment, and a Problem of Evil.Chad Meister - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (2):119-139.
    One version of the problem of evil concludes that personalistic forms of theism should be rejected since the acts that one would expect a God with person-like qualities to perform, notably acts that would prevent egregious evils, do not occur. Given the evils that exist in the world, it is argued, if God exists as a person or like a person, God’s record of action is akin to that of a negligent parent. One way of responding to this “argument from (...)
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  • Being Emergence Vs. Pattern Emergence: Complexity, Control, and Goal-Directedness in Biological Systems.Jason Winning & William Bechtel - 2019 - In Sophie Gibb, Robin Hendry & Tom Lancaster (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Emergence. London: pp. 134-144.
    Emergence is much discussed by both philosophers and scientists. But, as noted by Mitchell (2012), there is a significant gulf; philosophers and scientists talk past each other. We contend that this is because philosophers and scientists typically mean different things by emergence, leading us to distinguish being emergence and pattern emergence. While related to distinctions offered by others between, for example, strong/weak emergence or epistemic/ontological emergence (Clayton, 2004, pp. 9–11), we argue that the being vs. pattern distinction better captures what (...)
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  • Darwin's Perplexing Paradox: Intelligent Design in Nature.Steinar Thorvaldsen & Peter Øhrstrøm - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):78-98.
    Much has been written through the years of the clash between Darwinism and natural theology, and the basic tenants of this debate are well understood (Gillispie 1959; Bowler 1977; Ruse 2003; McGrath 2011). However, the literature is still growing, and one may wonder if anything new may yet be added. Of these new literary sources, one of the richest is the online Darwin Correspondence Project, which makes it possible to search and read the full texts of all correspondence either sent (...)
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  • The Sense of Diachronic Personal Identity.Stan Klein - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):791-811.
    In this paper, I first consider a famous objection that the standard interpretation of the Lockean account of diachronicity (i.e., one’s sense of personal identity over time) via psychological connectedness falls prey to breaks in one’s personal narrative. I argue that recent case studies show that while this critique may hold with regard to some long-term autobiographical self-knowledge (e.g., episodic memory), it carries less warrant with respect to accounts based on trait-relevant, semantic self-knowledge. The second issue I address concerns the (...)
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  • Mind and Life: Is the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature False?: Thomas Nagel: Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False; Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012, 144 Pp., $24.95 Hbk, ISBN 978-0-19-991975-8.Martin Zwick - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (1):25-38.
    partial review of Thomas Nagel’s book, Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False is used to articulate some systems-theoretic ideas about the challenge of understanding subjective experience. The article accepts Nagel’s view that reductionist materialism fails as an approach to this challenge, but argues that seeking an explanation of mind based on emergence is more plausible than seeking one based on pan-psychism, which Nagel favors. However, the article proposes something similar to Nagel’s neutral (...)
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  • The Self and its Brain.Stan Klein - 2012 - Social Cognition 30 (4):474-518.
    In this paper I argue that much of the confusion and mystery surrounding the concept of "self" can be traced to a failure to appreciate the distinction between the self as a collection of diverse neural components that provide us with our beliefs, memories, desires, personality, emotions, etc (the epistemological self) and the self that is best conceived as subjective, unified awareness, a point of view in the first person (ontological self). While the former can, and indeed has, been extensively (...)
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  • Extending the Psychology of Religion: A Call for Exploration of Psychological Universals, More Inclusive Approaches, and Comprehensive Models.Helmut K. Reich - 2008 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 30 (1):115-134.
    Extensions of ongoing research identified in the introduction to this special issue are discussed here with farther reaching objectives: researching more intensely psychological universals thought to underlie religion, taking a more inclusive approach to psychology of religion, and constructing more comprehensive models. All three involve conscious experience, to which some observations are devoted. Remarks about the relationships between these research areas conclude the article.
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  • Contextual Emergence and Its Applications in Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Science.Robert Poczobut - 2018 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 66 (3):123-146.
    The purpose of the article is to analyze the concept of contextual emergence as well as its selected applications in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. In the first section the author presents the general assumptions of the emergentist model of reality. He stresses that the concept of emergence can be applied to the description of various levels of organization of nature: one of these levels is that of mental-cognitive processes, analyzed within the fields of philosophy of mind and cognitive (...)
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  • Roger Sperry's Theory of Consciousness.Józef Bremer - 2017 - Philosophical Problems in Science 63:133-166.
    Roger W. Sperry received the Nobel Prize for Physiology in 1981 for his outstanding scientific achievements in connection with the study of people with severed brain commissures. Sperry linked the results of his research to philosophical considerations pertaining to the conscious mind of human beings and its place in the natural sciences. He was interested in the philosophical question of whether or not the severing of the cerebral hemispheres constituted a violation of the unity of consciousness. Sperry’s explanatory account of (...)
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  • بررسی انتقادی معنا و امکان وقوع تحول پارادایمی از طریق قبول نوخاسته‌گرایی.سید حسن حسینی & مسعود طوسی سعیدی - 2020 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 17 (2):27-56.
    نوخاسته‌گرایان مشهوری نظیر نانسی مورفی و پاول دیویس مدعی‌اند قبول برخی دیدگاه‌های نوخاسته‌گرایانه وقوع تحولی اساسی در پارادایم علمی حاکم را در پی دارد. در این مقاله، نخست با واکاوی مضامین اصلی مربوط به مواضعی نظیر طبیعت‌گرایی، تقلیل‌گرایی، علم‌گرایی و نظیر اینها، تحلیلی کلی از مؤلفه‌های پارادایم علمی ارائه می‌شود. در ضمن این تحلیل، مؤلفه‌های مختلف مربوط به پارادایم علمی تبیین شده، نسبت این مؤلفه‌ها با یکدیگر بررسی می‌شود. پس از آن، به بررسی دیدگاه‌های نوخاسته‌گرایانه از هر دو قسم نوخاسته‌گرایی (...)
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  • Emergentism and Sadra’s Psychology; a Common Physicalistic Challenge.Mahdi Homazadeh - 2019 - Asian Philosophy 29 (3):221-230.
    This paper first explores in detail a regenerated theory in philosophy of mind, known among contemporary philosophers as ‘emergentism’. By distinguishing strong and weak versions of the theory, I explain two important explanatory challenges presented by physicalists against this theory. In the following, I provide a brief overview of Sadr al-Muta’allihin’s theory of the incipience and degrees of the soul, examining similarities and differences between this theory and strong emergentism. Then, underlining the main aspects of similarity between the two theories, (...)
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  • The Language Game of Responsible Agency and the Problem of Free Will: How Can Epistemic Dualism Be Reconciled with Ontological Monism?Jürgen Habermas - 2007 - Philosophical Explorations 10 (1):13 – 50.
    In this essay, I address the question of whether the indisputable progress being made by the neurosciences poses a genuine threat to the language game of responsible agency. I begin by situating free will as an ineliminable component of our practices of attributing responsibility and holding one another accountable, illustrating this via a discussion of legal discourse regarding the attribution of responsibility for criminal acts. I then turn to the practical limits on agents' scientific self-objectivation, limits that turn out to (...)
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  • Is the Universe Open for Surprise? Pentecostal Ontology and the Spirit of Naturalism.James K. A. Smith - 2008 - Zygon 43 (4):879-896.
    Given the enchanted worldview of pentecost-alism, what possibility is there for a uniquely pentecostal intervention in the science-theology dialogue? By asserting the centrality of the miraculous and the fantastic, and being fundamentally committed to a universe open to surprise, does not pentecostalism forfeit admission to the conversation? I argue for a distinctly pentecostal contribution to the dialogue that is critical of regnant naturalistic paradigms but also of a naive supernaturalism. I argue that implicit in the pentecostal social imaginary is a (...)
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  • Many Windows: Reflections on Robert Ulanowicz’s Search for Meaning in Science.William Grassie - 2012 - Axiomathes 22 (2):195-205.
    This paper is an extended discussion of Robert Ulanowicz’s critique of mechanistic and reductionistic metaphysics of science. He proposes “process ecology” as an alternative. In this paper I discuss four sets of question coming out of Ulanowicz’s proposal. First, I argue that universality remains one of the hallmarks of the scientific enterprise even with his new process metaphysics. I then discuss the Second Law of Thermodynamics in the interpretation of the history of the universe. I question Ulanowicz’s use of the (...)
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  • On Emergence, Agency, and Organization.Stuart Kauffman & Philip Clayton - 2006 - Biology and Philosophy 21 (4):501-521.
    Ultimately we will only understand biological agency when we have developed a theory of the organization of biological processes, and science is still a long way from attaining that goal. It may be possible nonetheless to develop a list of necessary conditions for the emergence of minimal biological agency. The authors offer a model of molecular autonomous agents which meets the five minimal physical conditions that are necessary (and, we believe, conjointly sufficient) for applying agential language in biology: autocatalytic reproduction; (...)
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  • Design and its Discontents.Bruce H. Weber - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):271 - 289.
    The design argument was rebutted by David Hume. He argued that the world and its contents (such as organisms) were not analogous to human artifacts. Hume further suggested that there were equally plausible alternatives to design to explain the organized complexity of the cosmos, such as random processes in multiple universes, or that matter could have inherent properties to self-organize, absent any external crafting. William Paley, writing after Hume, argued that the functional complexity of living beings, however, defied naturalistic explanations. (...)
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  • Reflections on Metaphor and Identity in the Cyber-Corporation.Wade Rowland - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (1):15-28.
    This essay attempts to establish an alternative and more accurate way of thinking about the modern business corporation, its role in society, and its frequently sociopathic behavior. It proposes that corporations as they currently exist are a product of rationalist, positivist thought of the nineteenth century, and have in recent decades emerged from their increasingly complex conditions of existence into autonomous, self-regulating entities that can best be described as cyber-corporations or cybercorps. The cybercorp, as an emergent being, is capable of (...)
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  • Hierarchies: The Core Argument for a Naturalistic Christian Faith.Philip Clayton - 2008 - Zygon 43 (1):27-41.
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  • It Must Be True – But How Can It Be? Some Remarks on Panpsychism and Mental Composition: Pierfrancesco Basile.Pierfrancesco Basile - 2010 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 67:93-112.
    Although panpsychism has had a very long history, one that goes back to the very origin of western philosophy, its force has only recently been appreciated by analytic philosophers of mind. And even if many still reject the theory as utterly absurd, others have argued that it is the only genuine form of physicalism. This paper examines the case for panpsychism and argues that there are at least good prima facie reasons for taking it seriously. In a second step, the (...)
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  • The Religion-Science Discussion at Forty Years: "Reports of My Death Are Premature".Philip Clayton - 2005 - Zygon 40 (1):23-32.
    . The startling success of the religion‐science discussion in recent years calls for reflection. Have old walls been broken down, old antagonisms overcome? Have science and religion finally been reconciled? Or is all the activity just so much sound and fury signifying nothing? Postmodern equations of scientific and religious beliefs disregard a number of enduring differences that help make sense of the continuing tensions. Yet the skepticism of authors such as John Caiazza is also ungrounded. I describe five major types (...)
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  • Peircean Approaches to Emergent Systems in Cognitive Science and Religion.Mark Graves - 2007 - Zygon 42 (1):241-248.
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  • Critical Realism and the Process Account of Emergence.Stephen Pratten - 2013 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (3):251-279.
    For advocates of critical realism emergence is a central theme. Critical realists typically ground their defence of the relative disciplinary autonomy of various sciences by arguing that emergent phenomena exist in a robust non-ontologically, non-causally reductionist sense. Despite the importance they attach to it critical realists have only recently begun to elaborate on emergence at length and systematically compare their own account with those developed by others. This paper clarifies what is distinctive about the critical realist account of emergence by (...)
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  • On the Emergence of Living Systems.Bruce H. Weber - 2009 - Biosemiotics 2 (3):343-359.
    If the problem of the origin of life is conceptualized as a process of emergence of biochemistry from proto-biochemistry, which in turn emerged from the organic chemistry and geochemistry of primitive earth, then the resources of the new sciences of complex systems dynamics can provide a more robust conceptual framework within which to explore the possible pathways of chemical complexification leading to living systems and biosemiosis. In such a view the emergence of life, and concomitantly of natural selection and biosemiosis, (...)
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  • Between Physicalism and Mentalism: Philip Clayton on Mind and Emergence.James W. Haag - 2006 - Zygon 41 (3):633-647.
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  • The Relevance of Emergence Theory in the Science–Religion Dialogue.Mikael Leidenhag - 2013 - Zygon 48 (4):966-983.
    In this article, I call into question the relevance of emergence theories as presently used by thinkers in the science–religion discussion. Specifically, I discuss theories of emergence that have been used by both religious naturalists and proponents of panentheism. I argue for the following conclusions: (1) If we take the background theory to be metaphysical realism, then there seems to be no positive connection between the reality of emergent properties and the validity of providing reality with a religious interpretation, though (...)
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  • Remembering Arthur Peacocke: A Personal Reflection.Ian G. Barbour - 2008 - Zygon 43 (1):89-102.
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  • Co‐Creating Co‐Creators? The “Human Factor” in Education.Tom Uytterhoeven - 2014 - Zygon 49 (1):157-170.
    This article presents an example of the contributions the field of science and religion could offer to educational theory. Building on a narrative analysis of Philip Hefner's proposal to use “created co-creator” as central metaphor for theological anthropology, the importance of culture is brought to the fore. Education should support a needed revitalization of our cultural heritage, and thus enable humanity to (re-)connect with the global ecological network and with the divine as grounding source of this network. In the concluding (...)
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  • Emergence and Non‐Personal Theology.Zachary Simpson - 2013 - Zygon 48 (2):405-427.
    In response to recent theories of emergence which attempt to examine system dynamics and the evolution of complexity from physics to biology and consciousness, a number of theologians have attempted to distill religious insights from a philosophical concept of emergence. Recent work by Terrence Deacon, however, which emphasizes constraint and a process understanding of complexity, undercuts significant features in emergent theologies, namely the privileging of certain loci within emergent complexity, an emphasis on efficient causation, and, theologically, an agential and personal (...)
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  • Species of Emergence.Gregory R. Peterson - 2006 - Zygon 41 (3):689-712.
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  • Sixteen Years Later: Making Sense of Emergence (Again).Olivier Sartenaer - 2016 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (1):79-103.
    Sixteen years after Kim’s seminal paper offering a welcomed analysis of the emergence concept, I propose in this paper a needed extension of Kim’s work that does more justice to the actual diversity of emergentism. Rather than defining emergence as a monolithic third way between reductive physicalism and substance pluralism, and this through a conjunction of supervenience and irreducibility, I develop a comprehensive taxonomy of the possible varieties of emergence in which each taxon—theoretical, explanatory and causal emergence—is properly identified and (...)
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  • The Mediatized Co-Mediatizer: Anthropology in Niklas Luhmann's World.Young Bin Moon - 2012 - Zygon 47 (2):438-466.
    Abstract This essay explores what it means to be human in an age of infomedia. Appropriating Niklas Luhmann's systems theory/media theory in dialogue with other resources, I propose a post-Luhmannian paradigm of (1) extended media/meaning that conceives the world as world multimedia systems processing variegated meanings, and (2) an embodied, contextualized soft posthumanist anthropology that conceives the human as emergent collective phenomena of distinct meaning making by body-mind-society-technology media couplings. I argue: (1) Homo sapiens is Homo medialis distinct with mediatic (...)
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  • Natural Law and Divine Action: The Search for an Expanded Theory of Causation.Philip Clayton - 2004 - Zygon 39 (3):615-636.
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  • Emergence of Life.Bruce H. Weber - 2007 - Zygon 42 (4):837-856.
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  • Emergence, Naturally!Robert E. Ulanowicz - 2007 - Zygon 42 (4):945-960.
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  • Theology and Physics Forty Years Later.Ian G. Barbour - 2005 - Zygon 40 (2):507-512.
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  • Emergence and Human Uniqueness: Limiting or Delimiting Evolutionary Explanation?J. Wentzel van Huyssteen - 2006 - Zygon 41 (3):649-664.
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  • Anthropology, Polanyi, and Afropentecostal Ritual: A Scientific and Theological Epistemology of Participation.Craig Scandrett-Leatherman - 2008 - Zygon 43 (4):909-923.
    The 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis sponsored both an International Congress of Arts and Sciences aimed at unity of knowledge and an anthropology exhibit of diverse peoples. Jointly these represented a quest for unifying knowledge in a diverse world that was fractured by isolated specializations and segregated peoples. In historical perspective, the Congress's quest for knowledge is overshadowed by Ota Benga who was part of the anthropology exhibit. The 1904 World's Fair can be viewed as a Euro-American ritual, a (...)
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  • Emergence From Physics to Theology: Toward a Panoramic View.Philip Clayton - 2006 - Zygon 41 (3):675-687.
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  • God Embodied in, God Bodying Forth the World: Emergence and Christian Theology.Steven D. Crain - 2006 - Zygon 41 (3):665-674.
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  • The Emergence of Transcendental Norms in Human Systems.Mark Graves - 2009 - Zygon 44 (3):501-532.
    Terrence Deacon has described three orders of emergence; Arthur Peacocke and others have suggested four levels of human systems and sciences; and Philip Clayton has postulated an additional, transcendent, level. Orders and levels describe distinct aspects of emergence, with orders characterizing topological complexity and levels characterizing theoretical knowledge and causal power. By using Deacon's orders to analyze and relate each of the four "lower" levels one can project that analysis on the transcendent level to gain insight into the teleodynamic emergence (...)
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  • A Pentecostal Perspective on Entropy, Emergent Systems, and Eschatology.David Bradnick - 2008 - Zygon 43 (4):925-942.
    Many contemporary theologies have given considerable attention to the inbreaking work of God whereby the Spirit imbues creation with life and vitality, but in the process the seriousness of the destructive forces that plague the world has been overlooked. This oversight not only has significant theological consequences, but it also generates a tension with scientific postulates about physical reality. Paradoxically, increasing complexity, including emergent life systems, arise in spite of the overarching conditions. I posit from a theological perspective that the (...)
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  • Emergence Everywhere?! Reflections on Philip Clayton's Mind and Emergence.Antje Jackelen - 2006 - Zygon 41 (3):623-632.
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  • Created for Everlasting Life: Can Theistic Evolution Provide an Adequate Christian Account of Human Nature?John W. Cooper - 2013 - Zygon 48 (2):478-495.
    Christians who affirm standard science and the biblical doctrine of creation often endorse theistic evolution as the best approach to human origins. But theistic evolution is ambiguous. Some versions are naturalistic (NTE)—God created humans entirely by evolution—and some are supernaturalistic (STE)—God supernaturally augmented evolution. This article claims that NTE is inadequate as an account of human origins because its theological naturalism and emergent physicalist ontology of the soul or person conflict with the Christian doctrine that God created humans for everlasting (...)
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  • Space, Time, and Causality.John Polkinghorne - 2006 - Zygon 41 (4):975-984.
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  • Critical Afterword.Philip Clayton - 2010 - Zygon 45 (3):762-772.
    This Afterword looks back over both parts of the discussion of “God and the World of Signs”—“Semiotics and the Emergence of Life” in the previous issue of Zygon and “Semiotics and Theology” in this issue. Three central questions in this extended debate are identified: What is the nature of biological organisms and biological evolution? What is the relationship between the natural world and the Triune God of the Christian theological tradition? What should be the goals of Science/Religion Studies? I summarize (...)
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  • Actions and Agents: Natural and Supernatural Reconsidered.Joseph A. Bracken - 2013 - Zygon 48 (4):1001-1013.
    Using a process-oriented understanding of the relation between actions and agents, the author argues that an ontological agent is the ongoing effect or by-product rather than the antecedent cause of actions. Applied to the relation between natural and supernatural in philosophical cosmology, this allows one to claim, first, that agents (whether natural or supernatural) are not sensibly perceived, but only inferred from the ongoing observation of empirical actions; second, that the distinction between the natural and the supernatural is then conceivably (...)
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