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  1. The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One’s Structural Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
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  • Don’T Bet on It! Wagering as a Measure of Awareness in Decision Making Under Uncertainty.Emmanouil Konstantinidis & David R. Shanks - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (6):2111-2134.
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  • Self-Evaluation of Decision-Making: A General Bayesian Framework for Metacognitive Computation.Stephen M. Fleming & Nathaniel D. Daw - 2017 - Psychological Review 124 (1):91-114.
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  • Connecting Conscious and Unconscious Processing.Axel Cleeremans - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (6):1286-1315.
    Consciousness remains a mystery—“a phenomenon that people do not know how to think about—yet” (Dennett, , p. 21). Here, I consider how the connectionist perspective on information processing may help us progress toward the goal of understanding the computational principles through which conscious and unconscious processing differ. I begin by delineating the conceptual challenges associated with classical approaches to cognition insofar as understanding unconscious information processing is concerned, and to highlight several contrasting computational principles that are constitutive of the connectionist (...)
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  • Different Subjective Awareness Measures Demonstrate the Influence of Visual Identification on Perceptual Awareness Ratings.Michał Wierzchoń, Borysław Paulewicz, Dariusz Asanowicz, Bert Timmermans & Axel Cleeremans - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 27:109-120.
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  • Supra-Personal Cognitive Control and Metacognition.Nicholas Shea, Annika Boldt, Dan Bang, Nick Yeung, Cecilia Heyes & Chris D. Frith - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (4):186–193.
    The human mind is extraordinary in its ability not merely to respond to events as they unfold but also to adapt its own operation in pursuit of its agenda. This ‘cognitive control’ can be achieved through simple interactions among sensorimotor processes, and through interactions in which one sensorimotor process represents a property of another in an implicit, unconscious way. So why does the human mind also represent properties of cognitive processes in an explicit way, enabling us to think and say (...)
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  • Exploring the Computational Explanatory Gap.James Reggia, Huang A., Katz Di-Wei & Garrett - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (1).
    While substantial progress has been made in the field known as artificial consciousness, at the present time there is no generally accepted phenomenally conscious machine, nor even a clear route to how one might be produced should we decide to try. Here, we take the position that, from our computer science perspective, a major reason for this is a computational explanatory gap: our inability to understand/explain the implementation of high-level cognitive algorithms in terms of neurocomputational processing. We explain how addressing (...)
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  • The Validity of D9 Measures.Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans - unknown
    Subliminal perception occurs when prime stimuli that participants claim not to be aware of nevertheless influence subsequent processing of a target. This claim, however, critically depends on correct methods to assess prime awareness. Typically, d9 (‘‘d prime’’) tasks administered after a priming task are used to establish that people are unable to discriminate between different primes. Here, we show that such d9 tasks are influenced by the nature of the target, by attentional factors, and by the delay between stimulus presentation (...)
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  • A Signal Detection Theoretic Approach for Estimating Metacognitive Sensitivity From Confidence Ratings.Brian Maniscalco & Hakwan Lau - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):422-430.
    How should we measure metacognitive sensitivity, i.e. the efficacy with which observers’ confidence ratings discriminate between their own correct and incorrect stimulus classifications? We argue that currently available methods are inadequate because they are influenced by factors such as response bias and type 1 sensitivity . Extending the signal detection theory approach of Galvin, Podd, Drga, and Whitmore , we propose a method of measuring type 2 sensitivity that is free from these confounds. We call our measure meta-d′, which reflects (...)
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  • No-Loss Gambling Shows the Speed of the Unconscious.Andy Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):228-237.
    This paper investigates the time it takes unconscious vs. conscious knowledge to form by using an improved “no-loss gambling” method to measure awareness of knowing. Subjects could either bet on a transparently random process or on their grammaticality judgment in an artificial grammar learning task. A conflict in the literature is resolved concerning whether unconscious rather than conscious knowledge is especially fast or slow to form. When guessing , accuracy was above chance and RTs were longer than when feeling confident (...)
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  • The Relationship Between Strategic Control and Conscious Structural Knowledge in Artificial Grammar Learning.Elisabeth Norman, Ryan B. Scott, Mark C. Price & Zoltan Dienes - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:229-236.
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  • Illusions of Integration Are Subjectively Impenetrable: Phenomenological Experience of Lag 1 Percepts During Dual-Target RSVP.Luca Simione, Elkan G. Akyürek, Valentina Vastola, Antonino Raffone & Howard Bowman - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 51:181-192.
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  • The Time Course of Implicit and Explicit Concept Learning.Eleni Ziori & Zoltán Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):204-216.
    The present experiment investigated the development of implicit and explicit knowledge during concept learning. According to Cleeremans and Jiménez , the content of a representation can be conscious only when the representation is of a sufficiently good quality; on this theory, increasing explicit and decreasing implicit knowledge might be expected with training. The view that implicit knowledge arises from compilation of explicit knowledge makes the opposite prediction. The present research tested these possibilities using subjective measures based on confidence ratings. One (...)
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  • Empirical Support for Higher-Order Theories of Conscious Awareness.Hakwan Lau & David Rosenthal - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (8):365-373.
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  • Repeating a Strongly Masked Stimulus Increases Priming and Awareness.Anne Atas, Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1422-1430.
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