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  1. Sustaining Inter-Organizational Relationships Across Institutional Logics and Power Asymmetries: The Case of Fair Trade.Alex Nicholls & Benjamin Huybrechts - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 135 (4):699-714.
    This paper explores an empirical puzzle, namely, how inter-organizational relationships can be sustained between organizations that draw upon distinctive—and potentially conflicting—institutional logics under conditions of power asymmetry. This research analyses cases of these relationships and suggests some key conditions underlying them. Examining relationships between ‘Fair Trade’ organizations and corporate retailers, a series of contingent factors behind the dynamic persistence of such relationships are proposed, namely: the presence of pre-existing ‘hybrid logics’; the use of boundary-spanning discourses; joint tolerance of conflict; and (...)
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  • Extending Ethical Consumerism Theory to Semi-Legal Sectors: Insights From Recreational Cannabis.Elizabeth A. Bennett - 2018 - Agriculture and Human Values 35 (2):295-317.
    Ethical consumerism theory aims to describe, explain, and evaluate the ways in which producers and consumers use the market to support social and environmental values. The literature draws insights from empirical studies of sectors that largely take place on the legal market, such as textiles and agri-food. This paper takes a first step toward theorizing ethical consumerism in semi-legal sectors where market activities occur legally and illegally. How does extant theory extend to sectors such as sex work, cigarettes, and recreational (...)
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  • Who’s the Fairest of Them All? The Fractured Landscape of U.S. Fair Trade Certification.Daniel Jaffee & Philip H. Howard - 2016 - Agriculture and Human Values 33 (4):813-826.
    In recent years, consumers in the United States have been confronted by no fewer than four competing fair-trade labels, each grounded in a separate certification system and widely differing standards. This fracturing is partly a response to the recent split by the U.S. certifier Fair Trade USA from the international fair trade system, but also illustrates longstanding divisions within the fair trade movement. This article explores the dynamics of competition among nonstate standards through content analyses of fair trade standards documents (...)
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  • Mainstreaming and its Discontents: Fair Trade, Socially Responsible Investing, and Industry Trajectories.Curtis Child - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (3):601-618.
    Over time, according to popular and academic accounts, alternative trade initiatives [such as fair trade, organics, forest certification, and socially responsible investing ] almost invariably lose their oppositional stance and go mainstream. That is, they lose their alternative, usually peripheral, and often contrarian character. In this paper, I argue that this is not always the case and that the path to going mainstream is not always an unproblematic one. I observe that while scholars have documented various aspects of specific alternative (...)
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  • Beyond the Vertical? Using Value Chains and Governance as a Framework to Analyse Private Standards Initiatives in Agri-Food Chains.Anne Tallontire, Maggie Opondo, Valerie Nelson & Adrienne Martin - 2011 - Agriculture and Human Values 28 (3):427-441.
    The significance of private standards and associated local level initiatives in agri-food value chains are increasingly recognised. However whilst issues related to compliance and impact at the smallholder or worker level have frequently been analysed, the governance implications in terms of how private standards affect national level institutions, public, private and non-governmental, have had less attention. This article applies an extended value chain framework for critical analysis of Private Standards Initiatives (PSIs) in agrifood chains, drawing on primary research on PSIs (...)
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  • Partnerships for Development: Four Models of Business Involvement.Ananya Mukherjee Reed & Darryl Reed - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S1):3 - 37.
    Over the last two decades there has been a proliferation of partnerships between business and government, multilateral bodies, and/or social actors such as NGOs and local community organizations engaged in promoting development. While proponents hail these partnerships as an important new approach to engaging business, critics argue that they are not only generally ineffective but also serve to legitimate a neo-liberal, global economic order which inhibits development. In order to understand and evaluate the role of such partnerships, it is necessary (...)
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  • Between Ideals and Reality: Development and Implementation of Fairness Standards in the Organic Food Sector. [REVIEW]Melanie Kröger & Martina Schäfer - 2014 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (1):43-63.
    The organic sector is in an ongoing, but somewhat ambiguous, process of differentiation. Continuing growth has also entailed intensified competition and the emergence of conventional structures within the sector. Producers are under pressure to adapt their terms of production to these developments, bearing the risk that the original values and principles of organic farming may become irrelevant. To confront these tendencies and maintain their position on the market, organic producers and processors have launched a number of organic–fair initiatives. As some (...)
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  • Ethical Objections to Fairtrade.Peter Griffiths - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 105 (3):357-373.
    The Fairtrade movement is a group of businesses claiming to trade ethically. The claims are evaluated, under a range of criteria derived from the Utilitarian ethic. Firstly, if aid or charity money is diverted from the very poorest people to the quite poor, or the rich, there is an increase in death and destitution. It is shown that little of the extra paid by consumers for Fairtrade reaches farmers, sometimes none. It cannot be shown that it has a positive impact (...)
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  • Making Room for Smallholder Cooperatives in Tanzanian Tea Production: Can Fairtrade Do That? [REVIEW]Allison Marie Loconto & Emmanuel Frank Simbua - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):451 - 465.
    The objective of this article is to examine the different ways that smallholders are brought into Fairtrade certification schemes in the Tanzanian tea industry. We examine the different ownership relations of processing factories and the perceived benefits of these different arrangements. We use descriptive qualitative analysis based on qualitative interviews and focus groups conducted between 2008 and 2010 to identify the significance between factory ownership organization and Fairtrade certification. We find that there is a movement toward innovation in the organizational (...)
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  • Dominant Articulations in Academic Business and Society Discourse on NGO–Business Relations: A Critical Assessment. [REVIEW]Salla Laasonen, Martin Fougère & Arno Kourula - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (4):521-545.
    Relations between non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and companies have been the subject of a sharply increasing amount of publications in recent years within academic business journals. In this article, we critically assess this fast-developing body of literature, which we treat as forming a ‘business and society discourse’ on NGO–business relations. Drawing on discourse theory, we examine 199 academic articles in 11 business and society, international business, and management journals. Focusing on the dominant articulations on the NGO–business relationship and key signifiers they (...)
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  • Focus on Fairtrade: Propositions for Integrating Fairtrade and Supply Chain Management Research. [REVIEW]Katri Karjalainen & Claire Moxham - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (2):267-282.
    Driven by increased consumer interest and stakeholder pressure, the number of Fairtrade (FT) products has been steadily increasing. The mainstreaming of FT means that the products are now facing stiff competition within the generic product categories in which they operate. While consumers may pressure organizations for ethical conduct, they are less willing to pay premium prices for fairly traded products. For FT to continue to grow, more efficient operating models are required to offset the premium prices paid to producers to (...)
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  • Developing a Normatively Grounded Research Agenda for Fair Trade: Examining the Case of Canada.Darryl Reed, Bob Thomson, Ian Hussey & Jean-Frédéric LeMay - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (S2):151-179.
    This paper examines two issues related to research of certified fair trade goods. The first is the question of how agendas for fair trade research should be developed. The second issue is the existence of major gaps in the fair trade literature, including the study of the particular features of fair trade practice in individual northern countries. In taking up the first of these issues, the paper proposes that normative analysis should provide the basis for developing research agendas. Such an (...)
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  • Fair Trade in Italy: Too Much ‘Movement’ in the Shop?Leonardo Becchetti & Marco Costantino - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (S2):181-203.
    We analyse the development of Fair Trade in Italy by examining its principles, structure, performance, dilemmas and potential solutions and identifying its main distinctive features. These lead us to develop a specifically Italian model. Fair Trade in Italy is younger than its more established North European counterparts and more focussed on broad social justice issues in addition to its concern to include marginalized producers. This normative difference has given rise to a social-economy-dominated value chain, although it has generated much lower (...)
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  • Fairtrade Facts and Fancies: What Kenyan Fairtrade Tea Tells Us About Business’ Role as Development Agent.Michael E. Blowfield & Catherine Dolan - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (S2):143-162.
    Various promising claims have been made that business can help alleviate poverty, and can do so in ways that add value to the bottom line. This article begins by highlighting that the evidence for such claims is not especially strong, particularly if business is thought of as a development agent, i.e. an organization that consciously and accountably contributes towards pro-poor outcomes. It goes on to ask whether, if we did know more about either the business case or the poverty alleviation (...)
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  • Fair Trade Awareness and Engagement: A Coffee Farmer's Perspective.Andrew H. T. Fergus & Adina Gray - 2014 - Business and Society Review 119 (3):359-384.
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  • Fair Trade Standards, Corporate Participation, and Social Movement Responses in the United States.Daniel Jaffee - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):267 - 285.
    This article examines the development of and contestation over the standards for certified fair trade, with particular attention to the U.S. context. It charts fair trade's rapid growth in the United States since the 1999 advent of formal certification, explores the controversies generated by the strategy of market mainstreaming in the sector, and focuses on five key issues that have generated particularly heated contention within the U.S. fair trade movement. It offers a theoretical framework based in the literatures on agrifood (...)
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  • In the Name of Conservation: CAFE Practices and Fair Trade in Mexico. [REVIEW]Marie-Christine Renard - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):287 - 299.
    Consumers' concerns for the environment have led to the creation of niche markets, quality certifications and labelling systems. Built by activists and NGOs, these systems were adopted by agribusiness. Such firms try to capture consumers and react to opinion campaigns, whilst appropriating the conservation (or 'fair') discourse. This leads to the rise of new forms of third-party certifications of food production based on private standards and, hence, to new forms of contract relations between producers and buyers. The nature of these (...)
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  • Management of Social Issues in Supply Chains: A Literature Review Exploring Social Issues, Actions and Performance Outcomes.Sadaat Ali Yawar & Stefan Seuring - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (3):621-643.
    The social dimension of sustainable development and its impact on supply chains have so far received less attention than the environmental dimension. The aim of the research is to explore the intersection between social issues, corporate social responsibility actions and performance outcomes. A structured literature review of social issues in supply chains is presented, analysing the research published so far in peer-reviewed publications. Linking CSR and supply chain management allows the exploration of strategies and performance outcomes with a focus on (...)
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  • Are Fair Trade Goods Credence Goods? A New Proposal, with French Illustrations.Gaëlle Balineau & Ivan Dufeu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):331 - 345.
    In the literature, Fair Trade (FT) goods are usually associated with other products differentiated by process attributes such as organic food, genetically modified (GM) food or child labour-free clothing. All of these products are regarded as credence goods. This classification refers to the simplified definition of credence goods, which describes product attributes which consumers cannot evaluate, even after having consumed the good. Focusing on the characteristics of FT goods, this article proposes a reassessment of the link between FT goods and (...)
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  • Fair Trade in Italy: Too Much 'Movement' in the Shop? [REVIEW]Leonardo Becchetti & Marco Costantino - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):181 - 203.
    We analyse the development of Fair Trade in Italy by examining its principles, structure, performance, dilemmas and potential solutions and identifying its main distinctive features. These lead us to develop a specifically Italian model. Fair Trade in Italy is younger than its more established North European counterparts and more focussed on broad social justice issues in addition to its concern to include marginalized producers. This normative difference has given rise to a social-economy-dominated value chain (with a partial corporate involvement uniquely (...)
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  • Fair Trade Organizations in Belgium: Unity in Diversity? [REVIEW]Benjamin Huybrechts - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):217 - 240.
    This article analyzes the dual process occurring in the field of Fair Trade organizations (FTOs) in Belgium. On the one hand, there has been a gradual diversification of the organizational landscape over time from pioneering volunteer-based non-profit organizations to a broader array including cooperatives, group structures, businesses and individual entrepreneurs exclusively devoted to FT. On the other hand, a process of networking is currently taking place among the various types of FTOs in the context of the creation of a Belgian (...)
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  • Dveloping a Nomatively Grounded Research Agenda for Fair Trade Examining the Case of Canada. [REVIEW]Darryl Reed, Bob Thomson, Ian Hussey & Jean-Frédéric LeMay - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):151 - 179.
    This paper examines two issues related to research of certified fair trade goods. The first is the question of how agendas for fair trade research should be developed. The second issue is the existence of major gaps in the fair trade literature, including the study of the particular features of fair trade practice in individual northern countries. In taking up the first of these issues, the paper proposes that normative analysis should provide the basis for developing research agendas. Such an (...)
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