Kobieta i kobiecość w ujęciu Tomasza z Akwinu a neotomistyczna etyka feministyczna. Analiza krytyczna

Edukacja Filozoficzna 71:7-35 (2021)
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Within the context of women’s studies, Thomas Aquinas is probably best known for his paraphrasing of Aristotle’s view, which describes woman as a “deformed man”. While the Philosopher indeed adopts the empirically dubious premise of woman’s value being intrinsically inferior to that of man, which he consistently implements throughout his many works, in Thomas’s case the issue of gender is not addressed as clearly and definitively. Above all, Aquinas does not call woman “something deformed”, but “only” occasional and misbegotten. This is a reference to his ontological theory, in which woman is an occasional entity on the individual level, but a necessary one on the general level. He also distinguishes two relations of equality and affirms one of them to exist between woman and man. Although he accepts some of Aristotle’s beliefs (such as the impaired rationality of woman and her natural submission to man), he rejects other which show her as a being devoid of dignity. If one accepts the superiority of the spiritual sphere over the bodily one, it is ultimately possible to interpret Aquinas’s thought in a quasi-feminist way, as evidenced by the existence of Catholic Neo-Thomistic feminism, among others. Its achievements include recognising the divorce of marriages in which there is no friendship, abandoning Aristotelian biology in favour of modern scientific knowledge, and indicating the possibility of a feminist interpretation of the concept of natural law, which should include the welfare of women and minorities.

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