This article aims to contribute to the economic science’s discourse analysis, bringing the concepts of Foucault’s post-structuralism to this debate. We seek to understand the epistemological change in the economy, started in the 80s, without having to resort to a split in social interpretation in abstract cultural spheres (postmodernism) and other material-economic spheres (neoliberalism). The field of rhetoric in economics has sparked an intense debate in the social sciences. The abandonment of Keynesian theses, empirically tested throughout the 20th century, due to the absorption of neoliberal theses was interpreted as an expression of “postmodernity” in economic science. Arida and Paulani’s analysis trace the methodological criticism to the intense mathematization of the economy, to the resumption of premises based on ontologically questionable abstractions without, however, understanding the role of language in structuring the discourse of economic science. It is the search for an adequate ontology that guides the methodological critique of marginalist-neoclassical economic science. Based on Foucault’s concepts, we propose a new ontology for the understanding of the rhetoric field in economics.