O progresso na Filosofia da História de G. W. F. Hegel

Filogenese 10:53-64 (2017)
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This article proposes to present, in general, the thought of the German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel about history. Using mainly the work Philosophy of History, I seek first to analyze and to explain the different modes of historical approaches elaborated by Hegel, which are: the original history, the reflective history and its subdivisions and, finally, the philosophical history. After that, I center my studies on the concept of progress or, more precisely, historical progress. According to Hegel, philosophical history appears when we perceive that rationality governs the world, and therefore the actions and events that have occurred, occur and will occur are part of this rationality. Such a perception – that is, understanding that history develops and progresses according to rationality – is possible when we turn to the study of history, using it as material, and carefully observing and analyzing past historical events. According to Hegel, this historical process is the course of the spirit, constantly seeking a greater awareness of freedom and, therefore, a greater understanding of itself, because freedom is already in it, and it is not something alien, distant or external, it is in its center and is its substance. According to Hegel, nature, despite its polymorphic transformations, is only a repetitive and monotonous cycle, where there is nothing new under the sun. However, in the process of development of the spirit, that is, the spirit knowing itself, the new appears, this is progress, which, in turn, is aimed at the realization of freedom, with a view to its concretization in the State.
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