Controlled and uncontrolled English for ontology editing

Semantic Technology for Intelligence, Defense and Security 1523:74-81 (2015)
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Ontologies formally represent reality in a way that limits ambiguity and facilitates automated reasoning and data fusion, but is often daunting to the non-technical user. Thus, many researchers have endeavored to hide the formal syntax and semantics of ontologies behind the constructs of Controlled Natural Languages (CNLs), which retain the formal properties of ontologies while simultaneously presenting that information in a comprehensible natural language format. In this paper, we build upon previous work in this field by evaluating prospects of implementing International Technology Alliance Controlled English (ITACE) as a middleware for ontology editing. We also discuss at length a prototype of a natural language conversational interface application designed to facilitate ontology editing via the formulation of CNL constructs.

Author Profiles

Douglas Kutach
Rutgers University - New Brunswick (PhD)
Barry Smith
University at Buffalo


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