Is probabilistic evidence a source of knowledge?

Cognitive Science 39 (5):1062-1080 (2015)
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We report a series of experiments examining whether people ascribe knowledge for true beliefs based on probabilistic evidence. Participants were less likely to ascribe knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence than for beliefs based on perceptual evidence or testimony providing causal information. Denial of knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence did not arise because participants viewed such beliefs as unjustified, nor because such beliefs leave open the possibility of error. These findings rule out traditional philosophical accounts for why probabilistic evidence does not produce knowledge. The experiments instead suggest that people deny knowledge because they distrust drawing conclusions about an individual based on reasoning about the population to which it belongs, a tendency previously identified by “judgment and decision making” researchers. Consistent with this, participants were more willing to ascribe knowledge for beliefs based on probabilistic evidence that is specific to a particular case. 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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Knowledge and its Limits.Williamson, Timothy
Knowledge in an Uncertain World.Fantl, Jeremy & McGrath, Matthew

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Lottery Judgments: A Philosophical and Experimental Study.Ebert, Philip A.; Smith, Martin & Durbach, Ian

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