La historia como capacitación: Filosofía de la Historia en Xavier Zubiri

The Xavier Zubiri Review 4:101-108 (2002)
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Abstract
In this article, Zubiri’s concept of history is expounded. We may view this concept, along with the rest of his philosophy, from a naturalistic perspective which contemplates history as a social dynamism grounded in nature, and not as an essentially spiritual phenomenon or a rational one endowed with teleological progress separate from nature. By means of fundamental concepts in Zubirian philosophy, such as “possibility”, “tradition”, “reality in a condition”, “capacitation”, and others, our philosopher distinguishes himselffrom other idealistic visions which analyze history in virtue of a teleological ideal external to the dynamism proper to the real. This is the case with Kant, who structures history starting from an ideal of ethical-political progress, which is for him already inscribed within human nature. And it is also the case with Hegel, for whom history is a rational process, which is supposed to reach the Absolute Spirit by means of the prominence of the State as the locus of Reason’s revelation. En este artículo se expone la concepción de la historia de Xavier Zubiri. Tal concepción la podemos situar, al igual que el resto de su filosofía, en el marco de una perspectiva naturalista que contempla la historia como un dinamismo social fundamentado en la naturaleza, y no como un fenómeno esencialmente espiritual o racional de progreso teleológico ajeno a lo natural. Mediante conceptos fundamentales en la filosofía zubiriana como sonlos de “posibilidad”, “tradición”, “realidad en condición”, “capacitación”, ..., nuestro filósofo se desmarca de otras visiones idealistas que analizan la historia en virtud de un ideal teleológico externo al propio dinamismo de lo real. Es este el caso de Kant, el cual vertebra la historia a partir de un ideal de progreso ético-político que estaba inscrito ya en la misma naturaleza humana. O es también el caso de Hegel, para quien la historia es un proceso racional que ha de alcanzar el Espíritu Absoluto a través del protagonismo del Estado como lugar de desvelación de la Razón.
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