«Образ ісламу в середньовічній Європі: релігієзнавчий аспект»

Філософія І Політологія В Контексті Сучасної Культури 5 (5):18-25 (2017)
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The question of studying the metamorphosis of Europeans’ perception of the Islam is a topical issue now, because it helps to better understand the religious processes in modern Europe. Reconstructing the image of Islam in the ideas of the Christian peoples of the medieval Europe is the purpose of the study. To achieve this aim, I have used such methods as historical method, logical method, analysis, and hermeneutics. The research discusses the ideas of such authors as W.M. Watt, A.K.S Lambton, W. B. Hallaq, I. P. Dobaev, P. Veimar and others. I have identified four components of the medieval image of Islam in Europe. Firstly, it is the idea of alienation of Islam and Muslims for European countries. I have showed that this idea was a result of two facts: (1) Muslim-Christian wars of this period; (2) absence of assimilation processes of Muslim population in European countries. The second component is the thought that Europeans can learn Muslim ideas and technologies. During the middle ages Europeans borrowed from Muslims a lot of important knowledge, ideas and techniques, as well as Muslims from Europeans. I argue that the idea, that Muslim religion is something incompatible with Christianity, is the third component of the image of Islam by Christian Europeans of the Middle Ages. In particular, Thomas Aquinas rejects the idea that Muslims, Jews and Christians have a common Scripture. According to him, Muhammad’s religion did not have worthy confirmation of the truth of the teachings. Thomas Aquinas interpreted the fact that great masses of people believed in Islam by suggestion that Islam appeals to the carnal desires of people, offering polygamy and the idea of physical pleasures in the paradise. Also, Thomas points out that Islam is a religion of sword and violence. Also, I have argued that a fear of large masses of Muslim population and their military successes was the fourth component in the image of Muslims by Europeans in the Middle Ages.

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