Dindarlığı Besleyen Klasik Bir Kaynak: Gazali'nin Bidayetü'l Hidaye Kitabı

Diyarbakır, Türkiye: Ispec (2020)
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Ghazali’s The Beginning of Guidance (Bidayetü'l Hidaye) is a book that represents the beginning for people's salvation. According to Ghazali, in order for the human to be guided, he must first follow the orders of this book and then read the book The Revival of Religious Sciences, which he says contains useful science. According to him, the book of Beginning of Guidance can offer the key to salvation. In this book he made major changes in the understanding of worship of Islam and expanded both the content and the scope of worship. In this book, where the understanding of worship of Islam has become mystical; in addition to the prayers that the Qur'an declares as obligatory, the prophet Mohammed’s worship, the prayers of his companions, the remembrances of the Sufis, the wars made in the life of the ascetics are described in the form of orders that must be made in the way of liberation. Thus, he made the prayer not a part of life, but the whole life, saying that three times as much prayer as the God made obligatory, four times as much as Ramadan fasting, fifty-seven times a day prayer and chant every time of the day. There has been no previous study regarding the issue of Ghazali turning worship into ascetism with the book of Beginning of Guidance. In this paper, in addition to this work of Ghazali, the narrations in his other works will be taken into consideration. Thus, his project of Islam religion and mysticization will be introduced in more detail. There are two important factors that direct Gazali, who presents a way of life based on ascetism and seclusion, as an "ideal life". The first is the Sufi culture that he has been in since his childhood and has never broken. According to Ghazali, the life style of Sufi culture that takes the person away from the world is a prescription for salvation of Muslims who are under the threat of "secularization". The second is the distinction between the community and the upper class in the society with the effect of this Sufi culture. It is not possible to say the same thing for the common people belonging to the religion of 'imitation', while the upper class is liberated with the life of the feast and the deity. The only way of the salvation of the common people is to turn the prayers of the imitation religion to ascertism and to open the way of the seclusion. They can do it with the book Beginning of Guidance. Thus the common people can reach salvation just like the upper class by leaving this world behind.
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Archival date: 2020-12-17
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