Gazâlî’nin Ahlâk Anlayışı

Ankara, Türkiye: Osmangazi Üniversitesi (2021)
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Moral Understanding of Al-Ghazali In order to evaluate the moral understanding of Ghazali correctly, we should pay attention to how he handles the basic concepts and how he views the life of the hereafter. Ghazali sees moral descriptions such as good, bad and absurd as “knowledge pre-existing in the mind” and believes that it is inherent to do good and avoid evil. Reason naturally encourages people to avoid harm. Reason has the universal knowledge of good and evil. The concepts of moral good and bad are necessary in the mind, and it cannot be known with the mind that individual verbs are good and bad (particular). Particulars, for example, if lying is bad, it is known by 'experience'. In this respect, he has been influenced by philosophers in his statements pointing to the rational aspect of morality. The second important factor that determines Ghazali's view of morality is Sufism. He adopts a morality that advises to stay away from the world in accordance with the mystical understanding of life, and is shaped by compassion and consent. In Ghazali, morality has assumed an individual character with this aspect and the social ethics understanding has been pushed to the second plan. In such an individual understanding of morality, activities and activities aimed at achieving the hereafter and the hereafter are considered important. For this purpose, worship takes on a moral character and points out our responsibilities towards Allah. Those who worship are moral and deserve salvation. Thus, worship becomes a "goal", not a "tool" in the acquisition of morality. Those who fulfill their responsibilities to God behave morally. As a result, the two main pillars that make up the Ghazali understanding of morality are philosophical reason and mystical world view. Since reason is an innate feature of human beings, man knows the good and the bad as a fundamental and can behave morally with this knowledge. Again, knowing that this world is a temporary place, people will work with the focus on the hereafter and live morally by worshiping Allah.

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