Non-probabilistic Causation without Necessitation


This article introduces the notion of the directedness of a process, which underlies event causation as well as the persistence of things. Using this notion it investigates what happens in typical cases of active event causation. Causes never necessitate their effects because even non- probabilistic causes can be counteracted.

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Daniel von Wachter
International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein


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