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Making race out of nothing : psychologically constrained social roles

In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press (2012)

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  1. Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy.Bernard Williams - 1985 - Harvard University Press.
    By the time of his death in 2003, Bernard Williams was one of the greatest philosophers of his generation. Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy is not only widely acknowledged to be his most important book, but also hailed a contemporary classic of moral philosophy. Presenting a sustained critique of moral theory from Kant onwards, Williams reorients ethical theory towards ‘truth, truthfulness and the meaning of an individual life’. He explores and reflects upon the most difficult problems in contemporary philosophy (...)
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  • Social Construction and the Concept of Race.Edouard Machery & Luc Faucher - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1208-1219.
    There has been little serious work to integrate the constructionist approach and the cognitive approach in the domain of race, although many researchers have paid lip service to this project. We believe that any satisfactory account of human beings’ racialist cognition has to integrate both approaches. In this paper, we propose a step toward this integration. We present an evolutionary theory that rests on a distinction between various kinds of groups (kin-based groups, small-scale coalitions and ethnies). Following Gil-White (1999, 2001a, (...)
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  • Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy.Thomas Nagel - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (6):351-360.
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  • On the New Biology of Race.Joshua M. Glasgo - 2003 - Journal of Philosophy 100 (9):456-474.
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  • Appiah’s Uncompleted Argument: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Reality of Race.Paul C. Taylor - 2000 - Social Theory and Practice 26 (1):103-128.
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  • The Number of Black Widows in the National Academy of Sciences.Michael Root - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1197-1207.
    Studies in the social and biomedical sciences of racial differences in socioeconomic status or health within a population view the race of members as fixed and look for a difference in the frequency of a trait like average income or disease risk between racial subgroups. But, as I explain in this paper, there are good reasons to allow the race of members to vary with the trait whose variation within the population is to be described or explained. According to such (...)
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  • Convention: A Philosophical Study.David K. Lewis - 1973 - Synthese 26 (1):153-157.
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  • Convention: A Philosophical Study.David K. Lewis - 1971 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 4 (2):137-138.
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  • Essentialism and Folksociology: Ethnicity Again.Martin Kanovsky - 2007 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 7 (3-4):241-281.
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  • Race and Racial Cognition.Daniel Kelly, Edouard Machery & Ron Mallon - 2010 - In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
    A core question of contemporary social morality concerns how we ought to handle racial categorization. By this we mean, for instance, classifying or thinking of a person as Black, Korean, Latino, White, etc.² While it is widely FN:2 agreed that racial categorization played a crucial role in past racial oppression, there remains disagreement among philosophers and social theorists about the ideal role for racial categorization in future endeavors. At one extreme of this disagreement are short-term eliminativists who want to do (...)
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  • Getting Rid of Racism: Assessing Three Proposals in Light of Psychological Evidence.Daniel Kelly, Luc Faucher & Edouard Machery - 2010 - Journal of Social Philosophy 41 (3):293-322.
    At the end of a chapter in his book Race, Racism and Reparations, Angelo Corlett notes that “[t]here remain other queries about racism [than those he addressed in his chapter], which need philosophical exploration. … Perhaps most important, how might racism be unlearned?” (2003, 93). We agree with Corlett’s assessment of its importance, but find that philosophers have not been very keen to directly engage with the issue of how to best deal with, and ultimately do away with, racism. Rather, (...)
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  • Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science.Scott Atran - 1990 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  • Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy.Bernard Williams - 1987 - Behaviorism 15 (2):179-181.
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  • The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change. R. C. Lewontin.Michael Ruse - 1976 - Philosophy of Science 43 (2):302-304.
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  • Philosophy of Science and Race.Naomi Zack - 2002 - Routledge.
    First published in 2003. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  • Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy.Bernard Williams - 1986 - Routledge.
    With a new foreword by Jonathan Lear 'Remarkably lively and enjoyable…It is a very rich book, containing excellent descriptions of a variety of moral theories, and innumerable and often witty observations on topics encountered on the way.' -_ Times Literary Supplement_ Bernard Williams was one of the greatest philosophers of his generation. Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy is not only widely acknowledged to be his most important book, but also hailed a contemporary classic of moral philosophy. Drawing on the (...)
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  • ‘Race': Normative, Not Metaphysical or Semantic.Ron Mallon - 2006 - Ethics 116 (3):525-551.
    In recent years, there has been a flurry of work on the metaphysics of race. While it is now widely accepted that races do not share robust, bio-behavioral essences, opinions differ over what, if anything, race is. Recent work has been divided between three apparently quite different answers. A variety of theorists argue for racial skepticism, the view that races do not exist at all.[iv] A second group defends racial constructionism, holding that races are in some way socially constructed.[v],[vi] And (...)
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  • Reparations and the Rectification of Race.Naomi Zack - 2003 - The Journal of Ethics 7 (1):139 - 151.
    Positive law and problems with identifying beneficiaries confine reparations for U.S. slavery to the level of discourse. Within the discourse, the broader topic of rectification can be addressed. The rectification of slavery includes restoring full humanity to our ideas of the slaves and their descendants and it requires disabuse of the false biological idea of race. This is not racial eliminativism, because biological race never existed, but more importantly because African American racial identities and redress of present racism are based (...)
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  • Race: A Social Destruction of a Biological Concept.Neven Sesardic - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):143-162.
    It is nowadays a dominant opinion in a number of disciplines (anthropology, genetics, psychology, philosophy of science) that the taxonomy of human races does not make much biological sense. My aim is to challenge the arguments that are usually thought to invalidate the biological concept of race. I will try to show that the way “race” was defined by biologists several decades ago (by Dobzhansky and others) is in no way discredited by conceptual criticisms that are now fashionable and widely (...)
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  • Philosophy and Racial Paradigms.Naomi Zack - 1999 - Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (3):299-317.
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  • Race and Mixed Race.Naomi Zack - 1994 - Temple University Press.
    Author note: Naomi Zack is Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Albany. She herself is of mixed race: Jewish, African American, and Native American.
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  • Human Categories Beyond Non-Essentialism.Ron Mallon - 2007 - Journal of Political Philosophy 15 (2):146–168.
    In recent years, numerous articles and books in the humanities and the social sciences have been devoted to understanding the ascription of race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, mental illness, and other ‘human kind’ concepts to persons. What may be more surprising given the enormous volume of this research and the diversity of its sources is that much of it shares a common commitment to understanding the categories picked out by these concepts in an non- essentialist way. For example, Iris Marion (...)
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  • Sorting is Not Categorization: A Critique of the Claim That Brazilians Have Fuzzy Racial Categories.Francisco Gil-White - 2001 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 1 (3):219-249.
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  • Convention: A Philosophical Study. [REVIEW]J. E. Llewelyn - 1970 - Philosophical Quarterly 20 (80):286-287.
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  • Looks and Living Kinds: Varieties of Racial Cognition in Bahia, Brazil.Doug Jones - 2009 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 9 (3-4):247-269.
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  • Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence.Gregory Cochran, Jason Hardy & Henry Harpending - 2006 - Journal of Biosocial Science 38 (5):659-693.
    This paper elaborates the hypothesis that the unique demography and sociology of Ashkenazim in medieval Europe selected for intelligence. Ashkenazi literacy, economic specialization, and closure to inward gene flow led to a social environment in which there was high fitness payoff to intelligence, specifically verbal and mathematical intelligence but not spatial ability. As with any regime of strong directional selection on a quantitative trait, genetic variants that were otherwise fitness reducing rose in frequency. In particular we propose that the well-known (...)
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  • The Social Construction of What?Ian Hacking - 1999 - Harvard University Press.
    Especially troublesome in this dispute is the status of the natural sciences, and this is where Hacking finds some of his most telling cases, from the conflict ...
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  • Race and Racial Discrimination.Naomi Zack - 2003 - In LaFollette H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 245--271.
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  • The Uncompleted Argument: Du Bois and the Illusion of Race.Anthony Appiah - 1985 - Critical Inquiry 12 (1):21-37.
    Contemporary biologists are not agreed on the question of whether there are any human races, despite the widespread scientific consensus on the underlying genetics. For most purposes, however, we can reasonably treat this issue as terminological. What most people in most cultures ordinarily believe about the significance of “racial” difference is quite remote, I think, from what the biologists are agreed on. Every reputable biologist will agree that human genetic variability between the populations of Africa or Europe or Asia is (...)
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  • Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test.Debbie E. McGhee & Jordan L. K. Schwartz - unknown
    in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions oblige highly associated categories (e.g., liower + pleasant) to share a response key, performance is faster than when less associated categories (e.g., insect + pleasant) share a key. This performance difference implicitly measures differential association of the 2 concepts with the attribute. In 3..
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  • Insides and Essences: Early Understandings of the Non-Obvious.Susan A. Gelman & Henry M. Wellman - 1991 - Cognition 38 (3):213-244.
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  • Why Do We Think Racially? Culture, Evolution, and Cognition.Edouard Machery & Luc Faucher - unknown
    Contemporary research on racial categorization is mostly encompassed by two research traditions—social constructionism and the cognitive-cum-evolutionary approach. Although both literatures have some plausible empirical evidence and some theoretical insights to contribute to a full understanding of racial categorization, there has been little contact between their proponents. In order to foster such contacts, we critically review both traditions, focusing particularly on the recent evolutionary/cognitive explanations of racial categorization. On the basis of this critical survey, we put forward a list of eleven (...)
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  • Human Genetic Diversity: Lewontin's Fallacy.Anthony W. F. Edwards - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (8):798-801.
    In popular articles that play down the genetical differences among human populations, it is often stated that about 85% of the total genetical variation is due to individual differences within populations and only 15% to differences between populations or ethnic groups. It has therefore been proposed that the division of Homo sapiens into these groups is not justified by the genetic data. This conclusion, due to R.C. Lewontin in 1972, is unwarranted because the argument ignores the fact that most of (...)
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  • Race, Community and Moral Education: Kohlberg and Spielberg as Civic Educators.Lawrence Blum - 1999 - Journal of Moral Education 28 (2):125-143.
    Literature on moral education has contributed surprisingly little to our understanding of issues of race and education. The creation of inter-racial communities in schools is a particularly vital antiracist educational goal, one for which public support in the United States has weakened since the 1970s. As contexts for antiracist moral education, such communities should involve racially plural groups of students learning about, and engaging in, common aims, some of which must be distinctly antiracist: an explicit concern to institute racially just (...)
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  • Evolution, Population Thinking, and Essentialism.Elliott Sober - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (3):350-383.
    Ernst Mayr has argued that Darwinian theory discredited essentialist modes of thought and replaced them with what he has called "population thinking". In this paper, I characterize essentialism as embodying a certain conception of how variation in nature is to be explained, and show how this conception was undermined by evolutionary theory. The Darwinian doctrine of evolutionary gradualism makes it impossible to say exactly where one species ends and another begins; such line-drawing problems are often taken to be the decisive (...)
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  • Review of N. Zack, Philosophy of Science and Race. [REVIEW]Neven Sesardic - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (2):447-449.
    Does the concept of “race” find support in contemporary science, particularly in biology? No, says Naomi Zack, together with so many others who nowadays argue that human races lack biological reality. This claim is widely accepted in a number of fields (philosophy, biology, anthropology, and psychology), and Zack’s book represents only the latest defense of social constructivism in this context. There are several reasons why she fails to make a convincing case.
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  • How We Divide the World.Michael Root - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):639.
    Real kinds or categories, according to conventional wisdom, enter into lawlike generalizations, while nominal kinds do not. Thus, gold but not jewelry is a real kind. However, by such a criterion, few if any kinds or systems of classification employed in the social science are real, for the social sciences offer, at best, only restricted generalizations. Thus, according to conventional wisdom, race and class are on a par with telephone area codes and postal zones; all are nominal rather than real. (...)
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  • Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 1996 - The Tanner Lectures on Human Values 17:51-136.
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  • Typological Versus Population Thinking.Ernst Mayr - 1994 - In E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. The Mit Press. Bradford Books. pp. 157--160.
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  • "Racial" Nominalism.Ronald R. Sundstrom - 2002 - Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (2):193–210.
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  • Social Construction, Social Roles, and Stability.Ron Mallon - 2003 - In F. Schmitt (ed.), Socializing Metaphysics : The Nature of Social Reality. Rowman & Littlefield, 65-91. pp. 327--54.
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  • The Use of Race in Medicine as a Proxy for Genetic Differences.Michael Root - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1173-1183.
    Race is a prominent category in medicine. Epidemiologists describe how rates of morbidity and mortality vary with race, and doctors consider the race of their patients when deciding whether to test them for sickle‐cell anemia or what drug to use to treat their hypertension. At the same time, critics of racial classification say that race is not real but only an illusion or that race is scientifically meaningless. In this paper, I explain how race is used in medicine as a (...)
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  • Race and Philosophic Meaning.Naomi Zack - 2000 - In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Race and Racism. Oxford University Press.
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  • Why Do We Think Racially?Eduoard Machery - manuscript
    In H. Cohen and C. Lefebvre (eds.), Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, Elsevier (pp. 1009-1033).
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  • Sources of Racialism.Ron Mallon - 2010 - Journal of Social Philosophy 41 (3):272-292.
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  • Prejudice.Lawrence Blum - 2009 - In Harvey Siegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education. Oxford University Press.
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  • The Uncompleted Argument: Du Bois and the Illusion of Race.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 1986 - In Henry Louis Gates Jr (ed.), Race, Writing and Difference. University of Chicago Press.
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