Switch to: Citations

Add references

You must login to add references.
  1. Natural Kinds and Biological Taxa.John Dupre - 1981 - The Philosophical Review 90 (1):66-90.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   91 citations  
  • Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science.Jarrett Leplin - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):314-315.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   265 citations  
  • Species as Explanatory Hypotheses: Refinements and Implications.Kirk Fitzhugh - 2009 - Acta Biotheoretica 57 (1-2):201-248.
    The formal definition of species as explanatory hypotheses presented by Fitzhugh is emended. A species is an explanatory account of the occurrences of the same character among gonochoristic or cross-fertilizing hermaphroditic individuals by way of character origin and subsequent fixation during tokogeny. In addition to species, biological systematics also employs hypotheses that are ontogenetic, tokogenetic, intraspecific, and phylogenetic, each of which provides explanatory hypotheses for distinctly different classes of causal questions. It is suggested that species hypotheses can not be applied (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Essentialism and Folkbiology: Evidence From Brazil.Paulo Sousa, Scott Atran & Douglas Medin - 2002 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 2 (3):195-223.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   26 citations  
  • Bogen and Woodward’s Data-Phenomena Distinction, Forms of Theory-Ladenness, and the Reliability of Data.Samuel Schindler - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):39-55.
    Some twenty years ago, Bogen and Woodward challenged one of the fundamental assumptions of the received view, namely the theory-observation dichotomy and argued for the introduction of the further category of scientific phenomena. The latter, Bogen and Woodward stressed, are usually unobservable and inferred from what is indeed observable, namely scientific data. Crucially, Bogen and Woodward claimed that theories predict and explain phenomena, but not data. But then, of course, the thesis of theory-ladenness, which has it that our observations are (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Prototypical Reasoning About Species and the Species Problem.Yuichi Amitani - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (4):289-300.
    The species problem is often described as the abundance of conflicting definitions of _species_, such as the biological species concept and phylogenetic species concepts. But biologists understand the notion of species in a non-definitional as well as a definitional way. In this article I argue that when they understand _species_ without a definition in their mind, their understanding is often mediated by the notion of _good species_, or prototypical species, as the idea of ``prototype'' is explicated in cognitive psychology. This (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Species Are Not Uniquely Real Biological Entities.Brent D. Mishler - 2010 - In Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 110--122.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • Similarity After Goodman.Lieven Decock & Igor Douven - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (1):61-75.
    In a famous critique, Goodman dismissed similarity as a slippery and both philosophically and scientifically useless notion. We revisit his critique in the light of important recent work on similarity in psychology and cognitive science. Specifically, we use Tversky’s influential set-theoretic account of similarity as well as Gärdenfors’s more recent resuscitation of the geometrical account to show that, while Goodman’s critique contained valuable insights, it does not warrant a dismissal of similarity.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  • Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science.Scott Atran - 1990 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   74 citations  
  • Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science.Davis Baird - 1988 - Noûs 22 (2):299-307.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   229 citations  
  • The Concept and Causes of Microbial Species.John S. Wilkins - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (3):389-408.
    Species concepts for bacteria and other microbes are contentious, because they are often asexual. There is a Problem of Homogeneity: every mutation in an asexual lineage forms a new strain, of which all descendents are clones until a new mutation occurs. We should expect that asexual organisms would form a smear or continuum. What causes the internal homogeneity of asexual lineages, if they are in fact homogeneous? Is there a natural “species concept” for “microbes”? Two main concepts devised for metazoans (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Species: A History of the Idea.John S. Wilkins - 2009 - Univ of California Pr.
    "--Joel Cracraft, American Museum of Natural History "This is not the potted history that one usually finds in texts and review articles.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  • The Dimensions, Modes and Definitions of Species and Speciation.John S. Wilkins - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):247-266.
    Speciation is an aspect of evolutionary biology that has received little philosophical attention apart from articles mainly by biologists such as Mayr (1988). The role of speciation as a terminus a quo for the individuality of species or in the context of punctuated equilibrium theory has been discussed, but not the nature of speciation events themselves. It is the task of this paper to attempt to bring speciation events into some kind of general scheme, based primarily upon the work of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Data-Phenomena-Theories: What’s the Notion of a Scientific Phenomenon Good For?Jochen Apel, Monika Dullstein & Pawel Radchenko - 2009 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 40 (1):125-128.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • From Data to Phenomena: A Kantian Stance.Michela Massimi - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):101-116.
    This paper investigates some metaphysical and epistemological assumptions behind Bogen and Woodward’s data-to-phenomena inferences. I raise a series of points and suggest an alternative possible Kantian stance about data-to-phenomena inferences. I clarify the nature of the suggested Kantian stance by contrasting it with McAllister’s view about phenomena as patterns in data sets.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • The Individuality of the Species: A Darwinian Theory? — From Buffon to Ghiselin, and Back to Darwin. [REVIEW]Jean Gayon - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):215-244.
    Since the 1970s, there has been a tremendous amount of literature on Ghiselin's proposal that species are individuals. After recalling the origins and stakes of this thesis in contemporary evolutionary theory, I show that it can also be found in the writings of the French naturalist Buffon in the 18th Century. Although Buffon did not have the conception that one species could be derived from another, there is an interesting similarity between the modern argument and that of Buffon regarding the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Individuality, Pluralism, and the Phylogenetic Species Concept.Brent D. Mishler & Robert N. Brandon - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):397-414.
    The concept of individuality as applied to species, an important advance in the philosophy of evolutionary biology, is nevertheless in need of refinement. Four important subparts of this concept must be recognized: spatial boundaries, temporal boundaries, integration, and cohesion. Not all species necessarily meet all of these. Two very different types of pluralism have been advocated with respect to species, only one of which is satisfactory. An often unrecognized distinction between grouping and ranking components of any species concept is necessary. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   70 citations  
  • Folk Taxonomies Should Not Have Essences, Either: A Response to the Commentary.Peter Zachar - 2000 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 7 (3):191-194.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Natural Kinds: Rosy Dawn, Scholastic Twilight: Ian Hacking.Ian Hacking - 2007 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 61:203-239.
    The rosy dawn of my title refers to that optimistic time when the logical concept of a natural kind originated in Victorian England. The scholastic twilight refers to the present state of affairs. I devote more space to dawn than twilight, because one basic problem was there from the start, and by now those origins have been forgotten. Philosophers have learned many things about classification from the tradition of natural kinds. But now it is in disarray and is unlikely to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   57 citations  
  • Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    The notion of 'natural kinds' has been central to contemporary discussions of metaphysics and philosophy of science. Although explicitly articulated by nineteenth-century philosophers like Mill, Whewell and Venn, it has a much older history dating back to Plato and Aristotle. In recent years, essentialism has been the dominant account of natural kinds among philosophers, but the essentialist view has encountered resistance, especially among naturalist metaphysicians and philosophers of science. Informed by detailed examination of classification in the natural and social sciences, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   35 citations  
  • Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds.John S. Wilkins - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):221-240.
    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in A System of Logic. However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have always employed, of kinds as being types that need not have necessary and sufficient characters and properties, or essences. These competing views employ (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Folkbiology.D. Medin & S. Atran (eds.) - 1999 - MIT Press.
    This book takes an interdisciplinary approach, bringing together the work of researchers in anthropology, cognitive and developmental psychology, biology, and ...
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   39 citations  
  • Species as Ranked Taxa.David A. Baum - 2009 - Systematic Biology 58 (1):74-86.
    -/- Because species names play an important role in scientific communication, it is more important that species be understood to be taxa than that they be equated with functional ecological or evolutionary entities. Although most biologists would agree that taxa are composed of organisms that share a unique common history, 2 major challenges remain in developing a species-as-taxa concept. First, grouping: in the face of genealogical discordance at all levels in the taxonomic hierarchy, how can we understand the nature of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  • Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science.Ian Hacking - 1983 - Cambridge University Press.
    This 1983 book is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction to debates about (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   517 citations  
  • Problems and Projects.Nelson Goodman - 1972 - Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   160 citations  
  • Why There Are No Ready-Made Phenomena: What Philosophers of Science Should Learn From Kant.Michela Massimi - 2008 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 63:1-35.
    The debate on scientific realism has raged among philosophers of science for decades. The scientific realist's claim that science aims to give us a literally true description of the way things are, has come under severe scrutiny and attack by Bas van Fraassen's constructive empiricism. All science aims at is to save the observable phenomena, according to van Fraassen. Scientific realists have faced since a main sceptical challenge: the burden is on them to prove that the entities postulated by our (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds.John S. Wilkins - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):221-240.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • What is a Species, and What is Not?Ernst Mayr - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (2):262-277.
    I analyze a number of widespread misconceptions concerning species. The species category, defined by a concept, denotes the rank of a species taxon in the Linnaean hierarchy. Biological species are reproducing isolated from each other, which protects the integrity of their genotypes. Degree of morphological difference is not an appropriate species definition. Unequal rates of evolution of different characters and lack of information on the mating potential of isolated populations are the major difficulties in the demarcation of species taxa.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   50 citations  
  • Data, Phenomena, and Reliability.Jim Woodward - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):179.
    This paper explores how data serve as evidence for phenomena. In contrast to standard philosophical models which invite us to think of evidential relationships as logical relationships, I argue that evidential relationships in the context of data-to-phenomena reasoning are empirical relationships that depend on holding the right sort of pattern of counterfactual dependence between the data and the conclusions investigators reach on the phenomena themselves.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   41 citations  
  • How Reticulated Are Species?James Mallet, Nora Besansky & Matthew W. Hahn - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (2):140-149.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Species Concepts: A Case for Pluralism.Brent D. Mishler & M. J. Donoghue - 1982 - Systematic Zoology 31:491-503.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   71 citations  
  • On the Failure of Modern Species Concepts.Jody Hey - 2006 - Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21 (8):447-450.
    The modern age of species concepts began in 1942, when Ernst Mayr gave concept names to several different approaches to species identification. A long list of species concepts then followed, as well as a complex literature on their merits, motivations and uses. Some of these complexities arose as a consequence of the semantic shift that Mayr introduced, in which procedures for identifying species were elevated to concepts. Much of the debate in recent decades over concepts, and over pluralism versus monism, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Essentialism in Biology.John S. Wilkins - manuscript
    Essentialism in philosophy is the position that things, especially kinds of things, have essences, or sets of properties, that all members of the kind must have, and the combination of which only members of the kind do, in fact, have. It is usually thought to derive from classical Greek philosophy and in particular from Aristotle’s notion of “what it is to be” something. In biology, it has been claimed that pre-evolutionary views of living kinds, or as they are sometimes called, (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Saving the Phenomena.James Bogen & James Woodward - 1988 - Philosophical Review 97 (3):303-352.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   235 citations  
  • New Essentialism in Biology.Olivier Rieppel - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (5):662-673.
    The architects of the modern synthesis banned essentialism from evolutionary theory. This rejection of essentialism was motivated by Darwin’s theory of natural selection, and the continuity of evolutionary transformation. Contemporary evolutionary biology witnesses a renaissance of essentialism in three contexts: “origin essentialism” with respect to species and supraspecific taxa, the bar coding of species on the basis of discontinuities of DNA variation between populations, and the search for laws of evolutionary developmental biology. Such “new essentialism” in contemporary biology must be (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • Species: The Evolution of the Idea.John Wilkins - 2018 - Boca Raton: CRC Press.
    Features Covers the philosophical and historical development of the concept of "species" Documents that variation was recognized by pre-Darwinian scholars Includes a section on the debates since the time of the New Synthesis Better suited to non-philosophers Summary Over time the complex idea of "species" has evolved, yet its meaning is far from resolved. This comprehensive work is a fresh look at an idea central to the field of biology by tracing its history from antiquity to today. Species is a (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Are Species Really Individuals?David L. Hull - 1976 - Systematic Zoology 25:174-191.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   151 citations  
  • Ecological Species, Multispecies, and Oaks.Leigh Van Valen - 1976 - Taxon 25 (2/3):233-239.
    Oaks exemplify problems with the reproductive species concept which motivate a reconsideration of the use and nature of species. Ecology is important in the reconsideration. The species level is usually overemphasized in evolutionary thought; selection acts on phenotypes and any mutualistic units. Standard definitions tend to inhibit free conceptual progress. Multispecies, sets of broadly sympatric species that exchange genes, may occur among animals as well as plants and may conceivably bridge kingdoms. This phenomenon can be adaptively important. There may be (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   68 citations  
  • Metaphysics and the Origin of Species.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1997 - State University of New York Press.
    _This sweeping discussion of the philosophy of evolutionary biology is based on the revolutionary idea that species are not kinds of organisms but wholes composed of organisms._.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   56 citations  
  • What is a Species? Essences and Generation.John S. Wilkins - 2010 - Theory in Biosciences 129:141-148.
    Arguments against essentialism in biology rely strongly on a claim that modern biology abandoned Aristotle's notion of a species as a class of necessary and sufficient properties. However, neither his theory of essentialism, nor his logical definition of species and genus (eidos and genos) play much of a role in biological research and taxonomy, including his own. The objections to natural kinds thinking by early twentieth century biologists wrestling with the new genetics overlooked the fact that species have typical developmental (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • A Radical Solution to the Species Problem.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1974 - Systematic Zoology 23:536-44.
    Traditionally, species have been treated as classes. In fact they may be considered individuals. The logical term “individual” has been confused with a biological synonym for “organism.” If species are individuals, then: 1) their names are proper, 2) there cannot be instances of them, 3) they do not have defining properties, 4) their constituent organisms are parts, not members. “ Species " may be defined as the most extensive units in the natural economy such that reproductive competition occurs among their (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   215 citations  
  • Seven Strictures on Similarity.Nelson Goodman - 1972 - In Problems and Projects. Bobs-Merril.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   187 citations  
  • Species: The Units of Diversity,.M. F. Claridge, H. A. Dawah & M. R. Wilson (eds.) - 1997 - Chapman & Hall.
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • Ernst Mayr and the Modern Concept of Species.Kevin de Queiroz - 2005 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 (1):6600-6607.
    Ernst Mayr played a central role in the establishment of the general concept of species as metapopulation lineages, and he is the author of one of the most popular of the numerous alternative definitions of the species category. Reconciliation of incompatible species definitions and the development of a unified species concept require rejecting the interpretation of various contingent properties of metapopulation lineages, including intrinsic reproductive isolation in Mayr's definition, as necessary properties of species. On the other hand, the general concept (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Species Concepts and Species Delimitation.Kevin de Queiroz - 2007 - Systematic Biology 56 (6):879-886.
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • Cataloguing Power: Delineating ‘Competent Naturalists’ and the Meaning of Species in the British Museum.Gordon Mcouat - 2001 - British Journal for the History of Science 34 (1):1-28.
    At the centre of nineteenth-century imperial authority sat the British Museum, which set the standard for discourse about natural history. This paper examines the meaning of those standards, exploring their important but little-understood role in ending the nineteenth-century species debate. The post-Reform Bill political assault on the authority of the British Museum is examined in the light of the ‘species problem’, and a surprising solution by John Edward Gray, keeper of the natural history collection, is seen as both a mediation (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  • Natural Kinds.Ian Hacking - 1990 - In Barret And Gibson (ed.), Perspectives on Quine. pp. 129--141.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  • A Critique of the Species Concept in Biology.Th Dobzhansky - 1935 - Philosophy of Science 2 (3):344-355.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   38 citations  
  • The General Lineage Concept of Species and the Defining Properties of the Species Category.Kevin de Queiroz - 1999 - In R. A. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. MIT Press. pp. 49-89.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   42 citations  
  • Getting Rid of Species?Brent D. Mishler - 1999 - In Robert A. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. MIT Press. pp. 307-315.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations