Results for 'Boris Kment'

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Boris Kment
Princeton University
  1. Modality and Explanatory Reasoning.Boris Kment - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    Boris Kment takes a new approach to the study of modality that emphasises the origin of modal notions in everyday thought. He argues that the concepts of necessity and possibility originate in counterfactual reasoning, which allows us to investigate explanatory connections. Contrary to accepted views, explanation is more fundamental than modality.
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  2. Contingent Existence and Iterated Modality.Cian Dorr - 2017 - Analysis 77 (1):155-165.
    A discussion of a view, defended by Robert Adams and Boris Kment, according to which contingent existence requires rejecting many standard principles of propositional modal logic involving iterated modal operators.
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  3. New Directions in the Epistemology of Modality: Introduction.Antonella Mallozzi - 2019 - Synthese:1-19.
    The fourteen papers in this collection offer a variety of original contributions to the epistemology of modality. In seeking to explain how we might account for our knowledge of possibility and necessity, they raise some novel questions, develop some unfamiliar theoretical perspectives, and make some intriguing proposals. Collectively, they advance our understanding of the field. In Part I of this Introduction, I give some general background about the contemporary literature in the area, by sketching a timeline of the main tendencies (...)
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  4. Performative Inkonsistenz für Fallibilisten.Boris Rähme - 2016 - In Michael Quante (ed.), Geschichte - Gesellschaft - Geltung. Meiner. pp. 605-619.
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  5. Recognition. Reflections on a Contested Concept.Boris Rähme - 2013 - Verifiche. Rivista di Scienze Umane 42 (1-3):33-59.
    In recent years the term ‘recognition’ has been used in ever more variegated theoretical contexts. This article contributes to the discussion of how the concept(s) expressed by this term in different debates should be explicated and understood. For the most part it takes the concept itself as its topic rather than making theoretical use of it. Drawing on important work by Ikäheimo and Laitinen and taking Honneth’s tripartite distinction of recognition into love, respect, and esteem as a starting point it (...)
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  6.  64
    Boris Hessen and Newton's God.Ioannis Trisokkas - 2019 - Society and Politics 13 (1):64-86.
    A significant thread in Boris Hessen‟s iconic essay, The Social and Economic Roots of Newton’s Principia (1931), is his critique of Newton‟s involving God in his physics. Contra Newton, Hessen believes that nature does not need God in order to function properly. Hessen gives two, quite distinct, „internal‟ explanations of Newton‟s failure to see this. The first explanation is that Newton‟s failure is caused by his believing that motion is a mode instead of an attribute or essence of matter. (...)
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  7. An Explanatory Role for the Concept of Truth.Boris Rähme - 2014 - In Fabio Bacchini, Stefano Caputo & Massimo Dell'Utri (eds.), New Frontiers in Truth. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 15-37.
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  8. Ambition, Modesty, and Performative Inconsistency.Boris Rähme - 2017 - In Jens Peter Brune, Robert Stern & Micha H. Werner (eds.), Transcendental Arguments in Moral Theory. Berlin: de Gruyter. pp. 25-45.
    This chapter argues that the distinction between ambitious and modest transcendental arguments, developed and deployed by various authors in the wake of Stroud’s influential critique of transcendental reasoning, may be pointless when applied to transcendental arguments from performative inconsistency that have moral statements as their conclusions. If moral truth is assertorically constrained, then any modest moral transcendental argument from performative inconsistency can be converted into an ambitious moral transcendental argument. The chapter provides an account of performative inconsistency and suggests an (...)
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  9. Contingenza o validità universale? Rorty e Apel sul progresso morale.Boris Rähme & Valentina Chizzola - 2011 - Annali di Studi Religiosi 12:171-183.
    This paper examines two contemporary answers to the question of whether moral values and norms are apt for rational criticism and justification: Richard Rorty’s radically contextualist approach—which is centered around the notion of contingency and is characterized by a dismissal of all claims to philosophical justification—and Karl-Otto Apel’s transcendental-pragmatic version of discourse ethics—which encompasses highly ambitious claims to justification and universal validity. Contrasting the key theses of Rorty’s contextualism with those of Apel’s universalist discourse ethics and reconstructing their respective conceptions (...)
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  10. Die Rede von Wahrheitsansprüchen und ihre Konsequenzen.Boris Rähme - 2003 - In Dietrich Böhler, Matthias Kettner & Gunnar Skirbekk (eds.), Reflexion und Verantwortung. Auseinandersetzungen mit Karl-Otto Apel,. Suhrkamp.
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  11.  98
    Genere.Boris Rähme & Valentina Chizzola - 2017 - Aphex 15:1-38.
    According to a standard interpretation of the term, ‘gender’ denotes sets of social roles and expectations conventionally associated with the sexual physiology of human beings. Originally introduced in psychology, the term is now widely used in the social sciences and humanities, as well as in the biological sciences. In this article we introduce and discuss the central themes of contemporary philosophical debates on gender. Particular attention is paid to recent feminist arguments concerning the distinction between sex and gender, and to (...)
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  12. Is Evidence From Social Psychology and Neuroscience Relevant to Philosophical Debates in Normative Ethics?Boris Rähme - 2014 - Annali di Studi Religiosi 14:145-165.
    This article presents some considerations concerning the relevance of empirical research from neuroscience and social psychology for philosophical debates in normative ethics. While many authors hold that there are findings and theories from those fields that are relevant to normative ethics, it often remains unclear precisely how this relevance relation is to be construed and spelled out. The article critically discusses various proposals which have recently been made in this regard by philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists.
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  13.  80
    Review of Nugayev's Book "Reconstruction of Scientific Theory Change". [REVIEW]Boris Rosenfeld & Rinat M. Nugayev - 1994 - Physis (3):924-925.
    This book is a monograph aimed at an analysis of the reasons for fundamental theory change in science. The book was written and published in the last years of the Soviet Union, this fact explains the ‘dialectico-materialistic’ terminology used by the author.
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  14.  56
    Білий куб: формування галерейного простору.Boris Sorokin - 2018 - NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture 1:24-28.
    У статті розглянуто концепцію «білого куба», специфічного галерейного та музейного простору для демонстрації і споглядання мистецтва. Проаналізовано, як тривалі експерименти з формою демонстрації робіт у музейних приміщеннях були зумовлені потребою створити особливий простір, де кожний експонат був би максимально ізольованим і самодостатнім. Так виник «білий куб», який фактично був легітимізований Альфредом Барром, першим директором музею сучасного мистецтва в Нью-Йорку. Починаючи з Брайана О’Догерті, дослідники вказують, що галерейний простір, яке нібито є максимально нейтральним, насправді є глибоко ідеологізованим. Уваго було приділено і (...)
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  15.  50
    An Elementary System of Axioms for Euclidean Geometry Based on Symmetry Principles.Boris Čulina - 2018 - Axiomathes 28 (2):155-180.
    In this article I develop an elementary system of axioms for Euclidean geometry. On one hand, the system is based on the symmetry principles which express our a priori ignorant approach to space: all places are the same to us, all directions are the same to us and all units of length we use to create geometric figures are the same to us. On the other hand, through the process of algebraic simplification, this system of axioms directly provides the Weyl’s (...)
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  16.  77
    Logic of Paradoxes in Classical Set Theories.Boris Čulina - 2013 - Synthese 190 (3):525-547.
    According to Cantor (Mathematische Annalen 21:545–586, 1883 ; Cantor’s letter to Dedekind, 1899 ) a set is any multitude which can be thought of as one (“jedes Viele, welches sich als Eines denken läßt”) without contradiction—a consistent multitude. Other multitudes are inconsistent or paradoxical. Set theoretical paradoxes have common root—lack of understanding why some multitudes are not sets. Why some multitudes of objects of thought cannot themselves be objects of thought? Moreover, it is a logical truth that such multitudes do (...)
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  17.  68
    The Concept of Truth.Boris Čulina - 2001 - Synthese 126 (1-2):339 - 360.
    On the basis of elementary thinking about language functioning, a solution of truth paradoxes is given and a corresponding semantics of a truth predicate is founded. It is shown that it is precisely the two-valued description of the maximal intrinsic fixed point of the strong Kleene three-valued semantics.
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  18.  34
    Approximate Coherentism and Luck.Boris Babic - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    Approximate coherentism suggests that imperfectly rational agents should hold approximately coherent credences. This norm is intended as a generalization of ordinary coherence. I argue that it may be unable to play this role by considering its application under learning experiences. While it is unclear how imperfect agents should revise their beliefs, I suggest a plausible route is through Bayesian updating. However, Bayesian updating can take an incoherent agent from relatively more coherent credences to relatively less coherent credences, depending on the (...)
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  19.  68
    A Simple Interpretation of Quantity Calculus.Boris Culina - manuscript
    A simple interpretation of quantity calculus is given. Quantities are described as functions from objects, states or processes (or some combination of them) into numbers that satisfy the mutual measurability property. Quantity calculus is based on a notational simplification of the concept of quantity. A key element of the notational simplification is that we consider units intentionally unspecified numbers that are measures of exactly specified objects, states or processes. This interpretation of quantity calculus combines all the advantages of calculating with (...)
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  20.  70
    Euclidean Geometry is a Priori.Boris Culina - manuscript
    In the article, an argument is given that Euclidean geometry is a priori in the same way that numbers are a priori, the result of modelling, not the world, but our activities in the world.
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  21.  64
    How to Conquer the Liar - an Informal Exposition.Boris Culina - manuscript
    This article informally presents a solution to the paradoxes of truth and shows how the solution solves classical paradoxes (such as the original Liar) as well as paradoxes that were invented as counter-arguments for various proposed solutions to the paradoxes of truth (``revenges of the Liar''). Also, one erroneous critique of Kripke-Feferman axiomatic theory of truth, which is present in contemporary literature, is pointed out.
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  22.  95
    Mathematics - an Imagined Tool for Rational Cognition.Boris Culina - manuscript
    Analysing several characteristic mathematical models: natural and real numbers, Euclidean geometry, group theory, and set theory, I argue that a mathematical model in its final form is a junction of a set of axioms and an internal partial interpretation of the corresponding language. It follows from the analysis that (i) mathematical objects do not exist in the external world: they are our internally imagined objects, some of which, at least approximately, we can realize or represent; (ii) mathematical truths are not (...)
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  23.  32
    Modeling the concept of truth using the largest intrinsic fixed point of the strong Kleene three valued semantics (in Croatian language).Boris Culina - 2004 - Dissertation, University of Zagreb
    The thesis deals with the concept of truth and the paradoxes of truth. Philosophical theories usually consider the concept of truth from a wider perspective. They are concerned with questions such as - Is there any connection between the truth and the world? And, if there is - What is the nature of the connection? Contrary to these theories, this analysis is of a logical nature. It deals with the internal semantic structure of language, the mutual semantic connection of sentences, (...)
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  24.  44
    The Language Essence of Rational Cognition, with Some Philosophical Consequences.Boris Culina - manuscript
    This article analyses the essential role of language in rational cognition. The approach is functional -- I only look at the effects of the connection between language, reality and thinking. I begin by analysing rational cognition in everyday situations. Then I show that the whole scientific language is an extension and improvement of everyday language. The result is a uniform view of language and rational cognition which solves many epistemological and ontological problems. I use some of them -- the nature (...)
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  25.  41
    The Synthetic Concept of Truth and its Descendants.Boris Culina - manuscript
    The concept of truth has many aims but only one source. The article describes the primary concept of truth, here called the synthetic concept of truth, according to which truth is the objective result of the synthesis of us and nature in the process of rational cognition. It is shown how various aspects of the concept of truth -- logical, scientific, and mathematical aspect -- arise from the synthetic concept of truth. Also, it is shown how the paradoxes of truth (...)
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  26. An Incomplete Definition of Reality.Boris DeWiel - 2013 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (1):50-72.
    A reality may be defined incompletely as a perpetuating pattern of relations. This definition denies the name of reality to an utter and totalistic patternlessness, like a primal patternless stuff, because a patternless all-ness would be indistinguishable from a patternless nothingness. If reality began from a chaos or patternless stuff, it became a reality only when it became patterned. If there are orders of reality with perpetuating relations between them, as in Cartesian interactive substance dualism, the definition allows us to (...)
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  27. Heidegger’s Erfahrung: The Feeling of Existence.Boris DeWiel - unknown
    The desire for the inner feeling of existence was central to Heidegger’s later philosophy. During the 1930s in works like the Contributions to Philosophy, he began to search for the direct experience, rather than the mere knowledge, of existential power. I characterize such feelings as post-Lutheran. Luther taught his followers to feel the presence of an existentially creative God within themselves. Such feelings, as evidence of one’s salvation, became endemic. After the Enlightenment and despite the rise of secularism, the desire (...)
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  28.  71
    Kann Man Das „Paradigma der der Farbenlehre“ Auf Einen Anderen Bereich von Naturerscheinungen Anwenden? – Phänomenologie der Natur Nach Goethe Am Beispiel der Krafterscheinungen.Boris Heithecker - manuscript
    Die vorliegende Arbeit geht zunächst der Frage der Möglichkeit einer spezifischen, methodisch von den Naturwissenschaften unterschiedenen „Phänomenologie der Natur“ nach. Das Paradigma einer solchen Phänomenologie der Natur ist Goethes Farbenlehre, deren Methode über die Farberscheinungen hinaus Anwendungsmöglichkeiten auf neue Gegenstände eröffnet. Im Zusammenhang damit werden in der vorliegenden Arbeit die Ergebnisse eines philosophischen Versuchs vorgestellt, das Paradigma der Farbenlehre auf die Erscheinung Kraft zu übertragen. Die Anwendung des Paradigmas der Farbenlehre auf den Kraftbegriff ist möglich; das Ergebnis stellt bis in (...)
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  29.  30
    Naturteleologie, Reduktiv.Boris Hennig - 2006 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 113 (2):296--315.
    The sciences may be able to describe living beings, but this is not to account for their life. Life is not a describable property of things. There is also no philosophical a priori argument by which one could prove the existence of life – except perhaps our own. In order to understand what life is, we must start with our conception of that life that we know, human life, and reduce the notion of this life to a notion of mere (...)
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  30. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness.Boris Hennig - 2008 - Prolegomena 7 (1):2008.
    Descartes claims that God is a substance, and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, for an idea is distinct (in an objective sense) if its object may be easily and clearly (...)
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  31. Teleonomy.Boris Hennig - 2011 - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 14.
    The distinction between teleology and teleonomy that biologists sometimes refer to seems to be helpful in certain contexts, but it is used in several different ways and has rarely been clearly drawn. This paper discusses three prominent uses of the term “teleonomy” and traces its history back to what seems to be its first use. This use is examined in detail and then justified and refined on the basis of elements found in the philosophy of Aristotle, Kant, Anscombe and others. (...)
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  32. Enhancement umano: un dibattito in corso.Boris Rähme, Lucia Galvagni & Alberto Bondolfi (eds.) - 2014 - L'Arco di Giano - Rivista di Medical Humanities.
    Non è un caso che l’enhancement umano, cioè il potenziamento di capacità fisiche, cognitive ed emotive degli esseri umani con l’ausilio di tecnologie, sia diventato un tema centrale nei dibattiti etico-applicativi e nei tentativi contemporanei di arrivare a una comprensione più adeguata della natura umana. In esso si incontrano quesiti decisamente ricchi e complessi, sia dal punto di vista tecnoscientifico e medico sia da quello filosofico – e lo fanno in un modo che ci permette di vedere questi quesiti sotto (...)
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  33.  21
    The Communism according to Boris Groys.Giuseppe Raciti - 2009 - Archivio di Storia Della Cultura 22.
    Boris Groys’ suggestion is that after the historical experience of the Soviet Union and the passage to the market economy in China, the communism goes back to the state of theory. Such theoretical communism is not a theory of the communism though, nor a resumption and reinterpretation of the great theoretical apparatuses of the communism. It is instead a theory melted from the facts, literally ab-solute: not because the facts are “idealistically” resolved into the concept, but simply because they (...)
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  34.  47
    The Need for a System View to Regulate Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning-Based Software as Medical Device.Sara Gerke, Boris Babic, Theodoros Evgeniou & I. Glenn Cohen - 2020 - Nature Digital Medicine 53 (3):1-4.
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  35.  16
    Il comunismo secondo Boris Groys.Giuseppe Raciti - 2009 - Archivio di Storia Della Cultura 22:295-310.
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  36.  36
    Through the Pandemic, Towards a New Communism?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, Slavoj Žižek published a book called "Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World", which triggered a wave of reactions. In the book, he presents how the media ruthlessly exploited this subject, accentuating the panic. Many major studies have predicted the emergence of such a pandemic, but have been ignored by all governments, declaring them to be exaggerated. Žižek believes that the current pandemic has led to the bankruptcy of the current "barbaric" capitalism, wondering if the (...)
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  37.  28
    Prin pandemie, spre un nou comunism?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    După declararea pandemiei COVID-19, Slavoj Žižek a publicat o carte numită „Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World”, care a declanșat un val de reacții. În carte, el prezintă modul în care media a exploatat fără milă acest subiect, accentuând panica. Multe studii majore au prezis apariția unei astfel de pandemii, dar au fost ignorate de toate guvernele, declarându-le ca fiind exagerate. Žižek crede că actuala pandemie a dus la falimentul actualului capitalism ”barbar”, întrebându-se dacă nu cumva drumul pe care îl va (...)
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  38.  27
    A travers la pandémie, vers un nouveau communisme ?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Suite à la déclaration de la pandémie COVID-19, Slavoj Žižek a publié un livre intitulé « Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World », qui a déclenché une vague de réactions. Dans le livre, il présente comment les médias ont impitoyablement exploité ce sujet, accentuant la panique. De nombreuses études majeures ont prédit l'émergence d'une telle pandémie, mais ont été ignorées par tous les gouvernements, les déclarant exagérées. Žižek estime que la pandémie actuelle a conduit à la faillite du capitalisme « barbare (...)
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  39. Mit Schiller gegen den "Egoismus der Vernunft".Alfred Gierer - 2012 - In preprint series, Max-Planck_Institute for the history of science. MPI for the History of Science. pp. preprint 424, 1-22.
    Abstract in English: The short essay is about impressive philosophical ideas of the great German dramatist Friedrich Schiller (1749-1805). In his “letters on the aesthetic education…” he critisizes, with respect to human behaviour, too much reason and too stringent principles, leading to a neglect of positive emotions such as empathy; he argues in favour of an aesthetic lifestyle. This is supported by biological as well as mental aspects of human self-understanding. My article follows these lines of thought in a sequence (...)
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  40.  24
    The Completeness: From Henkin's Proposition to Quantum Computer.Vasil Penchev - 2018 - Логико-Философские Штудии 16 (1-2):134-135.
    The paper addresses Leon Hen.kin's proposition as a " lighthouse", which can elucidate a vast territory of knowledge uniformly: logic, set theory, information theory, and quantum mechanics: Two strategies to infinity are equally relevant for it is as universal and t hus complete as open and thus incomplete. Henkin's, Godel's, Robert Jeroslow's, and Hartley Rogers' proposition are reformulated so that both completeness and incompleteness to be unified and thus reduced as a joint property of infinity and of all infinite sets. (...)
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  41.  46
    Two Strategies to Infinity: Completeness and Incompleteness. The Completeness of Quantum Mechanics.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - High Performance Computing eJournal 12 (11):1-8.
    Two strategies to infinity are equally relevant for it is as universal and thus complete as open and thus incomplete. Quantum mechanics is forced to introduce infinity implicitly by Hilbert space, on which is founded its formalism. One can demonstrate that essential properties of quantum information, entanglement, and quantum computer originate directly from infinity once it is involved in quantum mechanics. Thus, thеse phenomena can be elucidated as both complete and incomplete, after which choice is the border between them. A (...)
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  42.  19
    Роль массовой психологии Б.П. Вышеславцева в развитии аналитической психологии.Valentin Balanovskiy - 2020 - Философская Мысль 5:1-13.
    The subject of the article is a mass psychology of B.P. Vysheslavtsev. This is a socio-philosophical conception, which created by Vysheslavtsev through the synthesizing of German classical philosophy, neo-Kantianism, Russian religious philosophy and analytical psychology. He developed the mass psychology in close collaboration with C.G. Jung by his direct order. The mass psychology, despite the heterogeneity of its foundations, became an organic continuation of analytical psychology. Moreover, there is reason to suppose that Vysheslavtsev's socio-philosophical and religious ideas influenced all of (...)
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  43. Mensch und Geschichte: Zur ‘anthropologischen Wende’ im russischen Neukantianismus.Nina Dmitrieva - 2010 - Etica E Politica 12 (2):82-103.
    The paper focuses on the problem of the “anthropological turn” in Russian Neo- Kantianism. There are three sources of this “anthropological turn”. The first one is the concept of man in German Neo-Kantianism which was developed on the basis of Kant’s ethics. The second one is the influence of Russian culture and history. The third is the state of Russian philosophy at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The Russian Neo-Kantians reflected closely on the (...)
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  44. Effective Finite-Valued Approximations of General Propositional Logics.Matthias Baaz & Richard Zach - 2008 - In Arnon Avron, Nachum Dershowitz & Alexander Rabinovich (eds.), Pillars of Computer Science: Essays Dedicated to Boris (Boaz) Trakhtenbrot on the Occasion of His 85th Birthday. Berlin: Springer. pp. 107–129.
    Propositional logics in general, considered as a set of sentences, can be undecidable even if they have “nice” representations, e.g., are given by a calculus. Even decidable propositional logics can be computationally complex (e.g., already intuitionistic logic is PSPACE-complete). On the other hand, finite-valued logics are computationally relatively simple—at worst NP. Moreover, finite-valued semantics are simple, and general methods for theorem proving exist. This raises the question to what extent and under what circumstances propositional logics represented in various ways can (...)
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