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Irfan Ajvazi
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  1. Husserl's Logical Investigations.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    In this work Husserl makes the distinction between expressions and indications that Derrida will later plant the bomb of Husserl's own Phenomenology of Internal Time Consciousness underneath it in order to undermine the dream for presence and inaugurate Deconstruction. Logic, as Husserl sees it, is concerned in the first place with meanings (propositions, concepts) and with associated meaning-instantiating acts. Most importantly, it is concerned with that sort of deductively closed collection of meanings which constitutes a scientific theory. For Husserl, as (...)
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  2.  85
    Reading Bruno Latour's Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory.Irfan Ajvazi - 2022 - Tesla Academy of Sciences 1:10.
    Latour does not seek any “hidden” reasons behind actions; there is not a dictionary or encyclopedia explaining the sources of the behaviors of the actors. No meta-language is in question. The analyst cannot address any invisible agency. If an agency is invisible, then it has no effect, therefore it is not an agency. If an analyst says: “No one mentions it. For Latour, agency is not limited to human beings, but objects should also be counted as agents which is one (...)
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  3.  37
    Plato's The Allegory of the Cave.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    The main idea of this allegory is the difference between people who simply experience their sensory experiences, and call that knowledge, and those who understand real knowledge by seeing the truth. The allegory actually digs into some deep philosophy, which is not surprising since it comes from Plato. Its main idea is the discussion of how humans perceive reality and if human existence has a higher truth. It explores the theme of belief versus knowledge. The Perception Plato theorizes that the (...)
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  4.  60
    Principal Doctrines of Epicurus.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Epicurean philosophy, as Epicurus's teachings became known, was used as the basis for how the community lived and worked. At the time, founding a school and teaching a community of students was the main way philosophical ideas were developed and transmitted. Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BCE), for instance, founded a school in Athens called the Lyceum. Epicurus and his disciples believed either there were no gods or, if there were, the gods were so remote from humans that they were not (...)
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  5. Nietzsche and the Nietzschean Philosophy of Moraity - Irfan Ajvazi.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Nietzsche and the Nietzschean Philosophy of Morality - Irfan Ajvazi.
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  6. Reading Roland Barthes‘s Mythologies.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
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  7.  77
    The Profanations of Giorgio Agamben.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Agamben is hard to pin down both theologically and philosophically. He attempts to construct miraculous minutiae out of un-miraculous things. Hence this work is the act of profaning the unprofanable. What ontological stature, what imaginative configuration and what spatio-temporal coordinates this move articulates are less than forthcoming. Indeed it is possible that Agamben disavows these entirely in favour of a Benjaminian eternal 'as if' structure, one which sees in the most mundane the traces of an eternal and secular redemption. But (...)
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  8.  78
    Critique of Bentham's Utilitarianism.Irfan Ajvazi - 2022 - Tesla Academy 1:10.
    Over time, the actions of mankind have been the victim of two vague labels, right and wrong. The criteria for these labels are not clearly defined, but they still seem to be the standard by which the actions of man are judged. There are some people that abide by a deontological view when it comes to judging the nature of actions; the deontological view holds that it is a person's intention that makes an action right or wrong. On the other (...)
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  9.  72
    Baudrillard and Consumer Society.Irfan Ajvazi - 2022 - Tesla Academy 1:10.
    Baudrillard was deeply influenced by this new ‘science’ of Semiology, which sought to study the system of language and the ‘life of signs within society’. In semiotics, a sign can be interpreted subjectively, the meaning being something beyond or other than itself. This sign is therefore able to communicate information to the person reading or decoding the sign. Baudrillard builds on the Saussurian dyadic, two-part model of the sign, where the sign is seen as being composed of a signifier (signifiant)- (...)
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  10.  41
    Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals.Irfan Ajvazi - 2022 - Tesla Books 1 (Kant‘s Philosophy):10.
    Kant's analysis of ordinary moral consciousness reveals that people believe they are bound by duty. Duty, in turn, Kant explains, "is the necessity of an action from respect for law." All inclination to the contrary, and even inclination toward duty is set aside, so that the only motivation is respect for law. The binding power of the law reflects not only a universal command but also a universal command of reason. After all, given that the realm of experience is, by (...)
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  11. Reading Todorov’s The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Reading Todorov’s The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre - Irfan Ajvazi.
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  12.  52
    Reading Peter Sloterdijk's Rage and Time: Psychopolitical Investigation.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Sloterdijk proposes to go beyond ressentiment (to transform current capitalism to gift-giving motivational type of system in order to achieve self-esteem and provide it to others and to everything) as the solution to the constant world history of paranoia and revenge. That, or repeating the old, the same, and the criminal! Nietzsches's hopes about it (overmen) is a cession to modernity (another great narrative, yet another ultimate kind of the will to power, or freedom) and is contrary to his main (...)
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  13.  44
    Expanding Speculative Realism & Speculative Materialism Meillassoux, and Correlationism.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    This relationship between human and Cosmos, is what Meillassoux refers as “correlationism”. Humans can only establish a correlation with the world through representational structures, but never can they access the in itself. But if one can only experience the world from their own perspective and understand it through synthetic categories via languages, then what is reality “as such”? This is part of what a speculative realist attempts to answer. It is also here, as what pertains to this “real”, where Meillassoux (...)
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  14.  35
    Bourdieu’s Language and Symbolic Power.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    The concept of symbolic power was first introduced by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu to account for the tacit, almost unconscious modes of cultural/social domination occurring within the everyday social habits maintained over conscious subjects. Symbolic power accounts for discipline used against another to confirm that individual's placement in a social hierarchy, at times in individual relations but most basically through system institutions, in particular education.
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  15.  31
    Bourdieu’s Language and Symbolic Power.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    The concept of symbolic power was first introduced by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu to account for the tacit, almost unconscious modes of cultural/social domination occurring within the everyday social habits maintained over conscious subjects. Symbolic power accounts for discipline used against another to confirm that individual's placement in a social hierarchy, at times in individual relations but most basically through system institutions, in particular education.
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  16. Husserl‘s Cartesian Meditations.Irfan Ajvazi -
    Husserl‘s Cartesian Meditations- Irfan Ajvazi.
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  17.  30
    Baudrillard’s The Agony of Power.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Baudrillard insists in this book that the true aim of globalization is actually the complete liquidation of values, either by consensus or force. The West, furthermore, demands that everyone else play the same game and liquidate their own values, as well. We create a desire in these other cultures to enter history through giving them access to the global market, implementing international institutions, causing national conflicts, and so on, but the problem is that other cultures have not yet even realized (...)
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  18. What is Schizoanalysis? (An Introduction to Gilles Deleuze & Felix Guattari).Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    What is Schizoanalysis? (An Introduction to Gilles Deleuze & Felix Guattari) -Irfan Ajvazi.
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  19.  11
    Predynastic Period in Egypt.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    The Predynastic Period in Ancient Egypt is the time before recorded history from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic Age and on to the rise of the First Dynasty and is generally recognized as spanning the era from c. 6000-3150 BCE (though physical evidence argues for a longer history). While there are no written records from this period, archaeological excavations throughout Egypt have uncovered artifacts which tell their own story of the development of culture in the Nile River Valley. The periods (...)
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  20.  30
    Diogenes's Sayings and Anecdotes: With Other Popular Moralists: An Introduction to Cynicism and Cynic Philosophy.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Cynicism is a unique philosophy. You could even say that they took their principles a little too far, perhaps. Diogenes' core idea was that Man should live in accordance with nature, as simply as possible. He along with his students were missionaries of a sort, traveling city-to-city preaching about the life of simplicity. To Diogenes, material things like money and lavish accessories corrupted nature. Not only did he despise concrete things, but he also disapproved of social conventions. Like every philosopher (...)
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  21.  88
    Reading Peter Sloterdijk's Concept of Spheres Bubbles : Spheres 1.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Reading Peter Sloterdijk's concept of spheres Bubbles : Spheres 1 - Irfan Ajvazi .
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  22.  83
    David Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    David Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.
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  23.  16
    Mesopotamian Civilization Before the Ancient Dark Ages.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Sumer was an ancient civilization in southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Ages. Although the historical records in the region do not go back much further than ca. 2900 BCE, modern historians believe that Sumer was first settled between ca. 4500 and 4000 BCE by people who may or may not have spoken the Sumerian language. These people, now called the "Ubaidians," were the first to drain the marshes for agriculture; develop trade; and establish industries including (...)
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  24.  15
    Hieroglyphs In Ancient Egypt.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Throughout history in Ancient Egypt, information has been passed on from one generation to another. Information about culture and traditions has been passed on verbally and through scripts. From the time of the Old Kingdom (3100 B.C) in Ancient Egypt, hieroglyphs were used as a tool to pass on information about their history, culture and everyday lifestyle. Hieroglyphs, hieratic and demotic are three stages of writing that were practised throughout Ancient Egypt ’s history. This paper will briefly explain the history (...)
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  25.  46
    Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    For me, Spinoza deserves our respect, not for the fact that he fought against religious suppression and for democracy and peace (which are noble deeds, indeed), but for the fact that he sees rationalism as the solution to human strife. We should use our intellect to try to come closer to the truth, to guide our actions and to consider the best option for all parties involved. This idea-using reason to increase humanity, dignity and peace-is enough to make Spinoza one (...)
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  26.  20
    Kierkegaard‘s Philosophical Fragments.Irfan Ajvazi - 2022 - Tesla Books 1 (Kierkegaard philosophy):10.
    Kierkegaard, like Plato, though using different methods and conclusions, sought to ground knowledge in the ineffability of subjectivity. For Plato, knowledge comes subjectively (internally); for Kierkegaard, it comes by God's grace through faith. Socrates becomes the facilitator for the slave in the /Meno/, as does God for the man of faith. Again, Kierkegaard is also concerned with passion. "...the paradox is the passion of thought, and the thinker without the paradox is like the lover without passion; a mediocre fellow" (p. (...)
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  27.  27
    Fragments of Parmenides.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Putting all of his faith in the power of abstract reason, Parmenides argues in his poem that genuine knowledge can only involve being, and that non-being is literally unspeakable and unthinkable. Using only the premise that "what is" is and what "is not" is not, he proceeds to deduce the nature of reality. The reality he arrives at bears no resemblance at all to the world we experience around us through our senses. -/- When starting out on a rational inquiry, (...)
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  28.  26
    Lucretius’ On the Nature of Things.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Lucretius On the Nature of Things draws heavily on Epicurus’s ideas, translating them from Greek into Latin and putting them into his own poetic voice. It is therefore the best source we have for the ideas of [classical Epicurean philosophy]. The atomic model is not more than a representational model of the physical universe up to a certain level of magnification. Modern science dives much deeper than atoms and ends up with no matter at all.
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  29.  13
    Middle Ages.Irfan Ajvazi - unknown
    ’ During the late Middle Ages a growth of scientific and philosophical knowledge began to occur. There was an increase in attention to art and architecture. Europe started to move forward in terms of intellect and culture. The ‘Golden Age of Europe’ is well exemplified in documents 6, 7, and 10. “… we learn that an age once traditionally described as ‘dark’ had remarkable vitality and exuberance. … But even more it was creative and inventive, and transmitted to later ages (...)
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  30.  61
    The Antinomies of Postmodernism.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
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  31.  44
    Capitalist Realism And The End Of Democracy.Irfan Ajvazi - 2022 - Critique and Dialectics 2:10.
    As civil liberties are shredded and powerful corporate and political force engage in a range of legal illegalities, the state itself becomes a model for corruption and violence. Violence has become not only the foundation of corporate sovereignty, it has also become the ideological scaffolding of common sense. Under casino capitalism, the state has become the enemy of justice and offers a prototype for types of misguided rebellion that mimic the lawlessness enshrined by corporate sovereignty and the repressive state apparatuses. (...)
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  32.  33
    Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Nature of Religion.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    This implies that something cannot be both a rule of grammar and at the same time a description of reality. This approach leaves the religious language game forever defining its own rules. The question is then prompted that if religious language does not get beyond itself to explore reality, how did it get started at all. -/- The fundamental reason that I myself stick to the idea that there are right and wrong moral judgments and better and worse moral outlooks, (...)
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  33.  12
    Plato‘s Apology.Irfan Ajvazi - 2022 - Tesla Academy 1 (Plato‘s Philosophy):10.
    Humans possess a natural and profound curiosity. This curiosity subsequently is the driving force for the emergence of philosophy. From early on, individuals realized that the world and many of the things and concepts within the world were inconceivable, which created a desire or love for wisdom. While many were interested in philosophy, pre-Socratic philosophers were more interested in determining how the world worked and its origins/cosmology, as oppose to philosophers such as Plato And Socrates who focused more on ethics (...)
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  34.  12
    The Medieval Period.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    A set point in the historical time line stands as the medieval period. The medieval period in history was the era in European history – from around the 5th to the 15th century, coming after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and preceding the start of the early modern era. This historical time period has been long since been the victim of film directors and romantic novelists, which has lead to the common, but false, idea of the medieval period (...)
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  35.  99
    Heidegger’s Being And Time.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Heidegger’s Being and Time - Irfan Ajvazi.
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  36. Discourse on Foucault’s Madness and Civilization.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Discourse on Foucault’s Madness and Civilization.
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  37.  90
    Foucault‘s Discipline and Punish.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Foucault‘s Discipline and Punish - Irfan Ajvazi.
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  38.  66
    Reading Lyotard The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge - Irfan Ajvazi.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Reading Lyotard The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge - Irfan Ajvazi.
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  39.  51
    Plato's Republic.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
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  40.  60
    Benjamin's The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, and Other Writings on Media.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Benjamin's The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, and Other Writings on Media .
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  41.  33
    Ideology Today.Irfan Ajvazi - unknown
    These three aspects of ideology form a kind of narrative. In the first stage of ideological doctrine we find ideology in its \"pure\" state. Here ideology takes the form of a supposedly truthful proposition or set of arguments which, in reality, conceal a vested interest. Locke’s arguments about government served the interest of the revolutionary Americans rather than the colonizing British. In a second step, a successful ideology takes on the material form which generates belief in that ideology, most potently (...)
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  42.  40
    Reading Jameson’s Allegory and Ideology.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
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  43.  11
    BOURDIEU's HOMO ACADEMICUS.Irfan Ajvazi - 2022 - Tesla Books 2 (Bourdieu and Sociology):10.
    Bourdieu argues that political inclination is dependent upon one's position in the academic field, and not vice versa. Distinguishing between three hierarchically arranged fields of power, he places the academic field in a middling position between the political and social fields. He posits a hierarchy of the faculties, in which those at the top are closer to political power. Bourdieu supports his argument using empirical data gathered through publicly available sources, presented in tabular form. University professors, Bourdieu argues, are subordinate (...)
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  44.  74
    Ponty’s Phenomenology of Perception.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Ponty’s Phenomenology of Perception - Irfan Ajvazi.
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  45.  22
    The Concepts of Bourdieu's Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    The Concepts of Bourdieu's Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste -/- The way Bourdieu introduces foreign concepts (habitus, doxa, logic of practice) is through jumping straight and enthusiastically into his deep thoughts, instead of clearly and logically defining them first. -/- Accepting these dominant characteristics of taste is, according to Bourdieu, a form of \" symbolic violence .\" That is, the fact of considering these distinctions between tastes as natural, and believing that they are necessary, denies the (...)
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  46.  9
    Sufi Philosophy.Irfan Ajvazi - unknown
    The article entitled "Sufi Philosophy" in the famous 1967 edition of The Encyclopedia of Philosophy has long struck me as something of an enigma. It was authored by a William Gerber who, I suspect, was the author of an ambitious (but long forgotten) work of analytical philosophy entitled The Domain of Reality (1946). Why Gerber was selected by the editor of the Encyclopedia to contribute an article on Sufism is unclear. There are a variety of factual errors in the article (...)
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  47.  78
    The Interpretations of Psychoanalysis.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
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  48.  36
    The Relevance of Realism.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
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  49.  44
    Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason - Irfan Ajvazi.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason - Irfan Ajvazi.
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  50.  43
    Reading Marcuse's One Dimensional Man.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Reading Marcuse's One Dimensional Man - Irfan Ajvazi.
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1 — 50 / 122