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  1. Ontology for Conceptual Modeling: Reality of What Thinging Machines Talk About, e.g., Information.Sabah Al-Fedaghi - manuscript
    In conceptual modeling (CM) as a subdiscipline of software engineering, current proposed ontologies (categorical analysis of entities) are typically established through whole adoption of philosophical theories (e.g. Bunge’s). In this paper, we pursue an interdisciplinary research approach to develop a diagrammatic-based ontological foundation for CM using philosophical ontology as a secondary source. It is an endeavor to escape an offshore procurement of ontology from philosophy and implant it in CM. In such an effort, the CM diagrammatic language plays an important (...)
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  2.  75
    Exploring Conceptual Modeling Metaphysics: Existence Containers, Leibniz’s Monads and Avicenna’s Essence.Sabah Al-Fedaghi - manuscript
    Requirement specifications in software engineering involve developing a conceptual model of a target domain. The model is based on ontological exploration of things in reality. Many things in such a process closely tie to problems in metaphysics, the field of inquiry of what reality fundamentally is. According to some researchers, metaphysicians are trying to develop an account of the world that properly conceptualizes the way it is, and software design is similar. Notions such as classes, object orientation, properties, instantiation, algorithms, (...)
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  3. Diagrammatic Modelling of Causality and Causal Relations.Sabah Al-Fedaghi - manuscript
    It has been stated that the notion of cause and effect is one object of study that sciences and engineering revolve around. Lately, in software engineering, diagrammatic causal inference methods (e.g., Pearl’s model) have gained popularity (e.g., analyzing causes and effects of change in software requirement development). This paper concerns diagrammatical (graphic) models of causal relationships. Specifically, we experiment with using the conceptual language of thinging machines (TMs) as a tool in this context. This would benefit works on causal relationships (...)
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  4.  28
    Preconceptual Modeling in Software Engineering: Metaphysics of Diagrammatic Representations.Sabah Al-Fedaghi - manuscript
    Conceptual modeling of a portion of the world is a necessary prerequisite to set the stage and define software system boundaries. In this context, one of the challenges is to provide a unified framework to create a comprehensive representation of the targeted domain. According to many researchers, conceptual model (CM) development is a hard task, and system requirements are difficult to collect, causing many miscommunication problems. Accordingly, CMs require more than modeling ability alone: they first require an understanding of the (...)
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  5. In Pursuit of Unification of Conceptual Models: Sets as Machines.Sabah Al-Fedaghi - manuscript
    Conceptual models as representations of real-world systems are based on diverse techniques in various disciplines but lack a framework that provides multidisciplinary ontological understanding of real-world phenomena. Concurrently, systems’ complexity has intensified, leading to a rise in developing models using different formalisms and diverse representations even within a single domain. Conceptual models have become larger; languages tend to acquire more features, and it is not unusual to use different modeling languages for different components. This diversity has caused problems with consistency (...)
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  6. Antithesis of Object Orientation: Occurrence-Only Modeling Applied in Engineering and Medicine.Sabah Al-Fedaghi - 2023
    This paper has a dual character, combining a philosophical ontological exploration with a conceptual modeling approach in systems and software engineering. Such duality is already practiced in software engineering, in which the current dominant modeling thesis is object orientation. This work embraces an anti-thesis that centers solely on the process rather than emphasizing the object. The approach is called occurrence-only modeling, in which an occurrence means an event or process where a process is defined as an orchestrated net of events (...)
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  7.  77
    Stoic Conceptual Modeling Applied to Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN).Sabah Al-Fedaghi - manuscript
    Basic abstraction principles are reached through ontology, which was traditionally conceived as a depiction of the world itself. Ontology is also described using conceptual modeling (CM) that defines fundamental concepts of reality. CM is one of the central activities in computer science, especially as it is mainly used in software engineering as an intermediate artifact for system construction. To achieve such a goal, we propose Stoic CM (SCM) as a description of what a system must do functionally with minimal ambiguity. (...)
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