Results for 'cultural differences'

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  1. Cultural differences in responses to real-life and hypothetical trolley problems.Natalie Gold, Andrew Colman & Briony Pulford - 2015 - Judgment and Decision Making 9 (1):65-76.
    Trolley problems have been used in the development of moral theory and the psychological study of moral judgments and behavior. Most of this research has focused on people from the West, with implicit assumptions that moral intuitions should generalize and that moral psychology is universal. However, cultural differences may be associated with differences in moral judgments and behavior. We operationalized a trolley problem in the laboratory, with economic incentives and real-life consequences, and compared British and Chinese samples (...)
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  2. No cross-cultural differences in the Gettier car case intuition: A replication study of Weinberg et al. 2001.Minsun Kim & Yuan Yuan - 2015 - Episteme 12 (3):355-361.
    In “Normativity and Epistemic Intuitions”, Weinberg, Nichols and Stich famously argue from empirical data that East Asians and Westerners have different intuitions about Gettier -style cases. We attempted to replicate their study about the Car case, but failed to detect a cross - cultural difference. Our study used the same methods and case taken verbatim, but sampled an East Asian population 2.5 times greater than NEI’s 23 participants. We found no evidence supporting the existence of cross - cultural (...)
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  3. Clarifying Conversations: Understanding Cultural Difference in Philosophical Education.Thomas D. Carroll - 2017 - In Michael Peters & Jeff Stickney (eds.), Pedagogical Investigations: A Companion to Wittgenstein on Education. Singapore: Springer. pp. 757-769.
    The goal of this essay is to explain how Wittgenstein's philosophy may be helpful for understanding and addressing challenges to cross-cultural communication in educational contexts. In particular, the notions of “hinge,” “intellectual distance,” and “grounds” from On Certainty will be helpful for identifying cultural differences. Wittgenstein's dialogical conception of philosophy in Philosophical Investigations will be helpful for addressing that cultural difference in conversation. While here can be no panacea to address all potential sources of confusion, Wittgenstein's (...)
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  4. The origin of cross-cultural differences in referential intuitions: Perspective taking in the Gödel case.Jincai Li - 2021 - Journal of Semantics 38 (3).
    In this paper, we aim to trace the origin of the systematic cross-cultural variations in referential intuitions by investigating the effects of perspective taking on people’s responses in the Gödel-style probes through two novel experiments. Here is how we will proceed. In section 2, we first briefly introduce the MMNS (2004) study, and then critically review the two relevant studies conducted by Sytsma and colleagues (i.e., Sytsma and Livengood 2011; Sytsma et al. 2015). In section 3, we introduce the (...)
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  5. What is in a name?: The development of cross-cultural differences in referential intuitions.Jincai Li, Liu Longgen, Elizabeth Chalmers & Jesse Snedeker - 2018 - Cognition 171 (C): 108-111.
    Past work has shown systematic differences between Easterners' and Westerners' intuitions about the reference of proper names. Understanding when these differences emerge in development will help us understand their origins. In the present study, we investigate the referential intuitions of English- and Chinese-speaking children and adults in the U.S. and China. Using a truth-value judgment task modeled on Kripke's classic Gödel case, we find that the cross-cultural differences are already in place at age seven. Thus, these (...)
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  6.  85
    The Merchants of Heavenly Grace: On Academic Publication and Cultural Difference.John T. Giordano - 2023 - Meθexis Journal of Research in Values and Spirituality 3 (2):84-101.
    The increasing standardization, specialisation and monetarization of academic publishing is designed to foster quality in research and expression. But these tendencies also pose serious challenges to the expression of cultural difference, particularly with regard to philosophy and religious studies. Scholars from various cultural backgrounds outside of mainstream universities often find themselves marginalised when the quality of their work is judged through the metrics of mainstream academic publishing. Smaller journals which give a forum to local research are gradually disappearing (...)
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  7. What Does Cultural Difference Require of Human Rights.Claudio Corradetti - 2013 - In Cindy Holder & David Reidy (eds.), Human Rights. The Hard Questions, Cambridge University Press.
    Th e contemporary right to freedom of thought together with all its further declinations into freedom of speech, religion, conscience and expression, had one of its earliest historical recognitions at the end of the Wars of Religion with the Edict of Nantes (1598). In several respects one can saythat the right to freedom of thought is virtually “co-original” with the endof the Wars of Religion. Following this thought further, one might think that human rights defi ne the boundaries of our (...)
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  8. Emotional A.I. research: The importance of data-philosophizing to account for cultural differences.Ho Manh Tung - unknown
    The discourse on emotional A.I., i.e., technologies that read, classify, identify human emotions, is currently dominated by Western ideas1. Yet, even A.I. researchers in the West acknowledge there are cultural differences if neglected could magnify and affect A.I.'s accuracy.
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  9. Cross-cultural similarities and differences.William Forde Thompson & Balkwill & Laura-Lee - 2011 - In Patrik N. Juslin & John Sloboda (eds.), Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications. Oxford University Press.
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  10. A conceptual investigation of the ontological commensurability of spatial data infrastructures among different cultures.D. J. Saab - 2009 - Earth Science Informatics 2 (4):283-297.
    Humans think and communicate in very flexible and schematic ways, and a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for the Amazon and associated information system ontologies should reflect this flexibility and the adaptive nature of human cognition in order to achieve semantic interoperability. In this paper I offer a conceptual investigation of SDI and explore the nature of cultural schemas as expressions of indigenous ontologies and the challenges of semantic interoperability across cultures. Cultural schemas are, in essence, our ontologies, but (...)
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  11. Different language / different epistemology? A reconsideration of the relevance of Whorf-Sapir and discursive relativity in discussions of epistemology and culture today.Brasher Mark - manuscript
    How are language and thinking related? The “Sapir-Whorf” hypothesis that language determines thinking, has been widely debated but more recently has attracted far less interest and some critics reject it outright, as refuted. Has it been refuted and is there no longer any reason to discuss Sapir and Whorf’s ideas? I will argue that it has not and that, in any case, the “hypothesis” does not express Whorf’s published ideas (nor, probably, Sapir’s). This leads to an even more interesting question: (...)
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  12. An investigation of the divergences and convergences of trait empathy across two cultures.Paria Yaghoubi Jami, Behzad Mansouri, Stephen J. Thoma & Hyemin Han - 2019 - Journal of Moral Education 48 (2):1-16.
    The extent to which individuals with a variety of cultural backgrounds differ in empathic responsiveness is unknown. This article describes the differences in trait empathy in one independent and one interdependent society (i.e., the US and Iran, respectively). The analysis of data collected from self-reported questionnaires answered by 326 adults indicated a significant difference in the cognitive component of empathy concerning participants’ affiliation to either egocentric or socio-centric society: Iranian participants with interdependent cultural norms, reported higher cognitive (...)
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  13. THE NATURE/CULTURE DIVIDE: A Difference in Degree or in Kind?Iñaki Xavier Larrauri Pertierra - 2020 - InCircolo - Rivista di Filosofia E Culture 10 (1):290-306.
    This essay explores the relation between nature and culture and analyses it from the perspective of contemporary evolutionary theory. Both animals and humans are conceived of as attaining both natural and cultural features that interact with each other on a number of levels of varying complexity: nature as cultural, nature as influenced by culture, culture as natural, and culture as influenced by nature. “Nature as cultural” is meant to express a decoupling of behavioral/phenotypic changes of an organism (...)
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  14. Culture and Cognitive Science.Andreas De Block & Daniel Kelly - 2022 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Human behavior and thought often exhibit a familiar pattern of within group similarity and between group difference. Many of these patterns are attributed to cultural differences. For much of the history of its investigation into behavior and thought, however, cognitive science has been disproportionately focused on uncovering and explaining the more universal features of human minds—or the universal features of minds in general. -/- This entry charts out the ways in which this has changed over recent decades. It (...)
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  15. Culture and Conceptualisation of Scientific Terms: An Analysis of the Concepts "Weight" and "Mass" in Arabic and French.Hicham Lahlou & Hajar Rahim - 2016 - Kemanusiaan 23 (Supp. 2):19-37.
    Studies on difficulties in understanding scientific terms have shown that the problem is more serious among non-Western learners. The main reasons for this are the learners' pre-existing knowledge of scientific terms, their native language incommensurability with Western languages, and the polysemy of the words used to denote scientific concepts. The current study is an analysis of the conceptualisation of scientific concepts in two culturally different languages, i.e. Arabic and French, which represent a non-Western language and a Western language respectively. Physics (...)
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  16. The cross-cultural study of mind and behaviour: a word of caution.Carles Salazar - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-18.
    Nobody doubts that culture plays a decisive role in understanding human forms of life. But it is unclear how this decisive role should be integrated into a comprehensive explanatory model of human behaviour that brings together naturalistic and social-scientific perspectives. Cultural difference, cultural learning, cultural determination do not mix well with the factors that are normally given full explanatory value in the more naturalistic approaches to the study of human behaviour. My purpose in this paper is to (...)
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  17. Cultural Bias in Explainable AI Research.Uwe Peters & Mary Carman - forthcoming - Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research.
    For synergistic interactions between humans and artificial intelligence (AI) systems, AI outputs often need to be explainable to people. Explainable AI (XAI) systems are commonly tested in human user studies. However, whether XAI researchers consider potential cultural differences in human explanatory needs remains unexplored. We highlight psychological research that found significant differences in human explanations between many people from Western, commonly individualist countries and people from non-Western, often collectivist countries. We argue that XAI research currently overlooks these (...)
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  18.  58
    Cultural Additivity: A Conceptual Mapping.Minh-Hoang Nguyen, Hong Kong Nguyen, Manh Tung Ho & Manh Toan Ho - manuscript
    Cultural Additivity” is the concept proposed by Vuong et al. to demonstrate the interactions of various cultural values in a society. However, there have been multiple concepts discussing the interaction between different cultural values, such as Hybridization/Hybridity, Creolization, Syncretism, etc. So, how can we distinguish cultural additivity from other concepts, which may sound similar? In this essay, we propose a diagram for doing such a task .
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  19. The cross-cultural study of mind and behaviour: a word of caution.Carles Salazar - 2023 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 14 (2):497-514.
    Nobody doubts that culture plays a decisive role in understanding human forms of life. But it is unclear how this decisive role should be integrated into a comprehensive explanatory model of human behaviour that brings together naturalistic and social-scientific perspectives. Cultural difference, cultural learning, cultural determination do not mix well with the factors that are normally given full explanatory value in the more naturalistic approaches to the study of human behaviour. My purpose in this paper is to (...)
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  20. Organizational culture: nature, types, peculiarities of implementation in Ukraine.Oleksandr P. Krupskyi - 2014 - Economic Bulletin of the National Mining University Scientific Journal 45:29-38.
    Different approaches to the definition of organizational culture are considered; its types, essential elements and functions in the organization are characterized. Author's point of view on organizational culture in a broad and narrow sense is formulated. Some peculiarities of employees’ perception of organizational culture in Ukrainian enterprises are analyzed.
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  21. Cultural Pluralism and Its Implications for Media Ethics.Thaddeus Metz - 2018 - In Patrick Plaisance (ed.), Ethics in Communication. De Gruyter. pp. 53-73.
    In the face of differences between the ethical religio-philosophies believed across the globe, how should a media ethicist theorize or make recommendations in the light of theory? One approach is relativist, taking each distinct moral worldview to be true only for its own people. A second approach is universalist, seeking to discover a handful of basic ethical principles that are already shared by all the world's peoples. After providing reasons to doubt both of these approaches to doing media ethics, (...)
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  22. Cultural Identity and Intergroup Conflicts: Testing Parochial Altruism Model via Archaeological Data.Hisashi Nakao - 2023 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 32:75-87.
    The present research used archaeological data, i.e., the data obtained from kamekan jar burials in the Mikuni Hills of the northern Kyushu area in the Mid- dle Yayoi period, to test the parochial altruism model. This model argued that out-group hate and in-group favor coevolved via prehistoric intergroup conflicts. If this model is accurate, such an out-group hate and in-group favor could be re- flected in the archaeological remains, such as pottery making; the more frequent intergroup conflicts are and the (...)
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  23. Culture, Identity and Islamic Schooling: A philosophical approach.Michael S. Merry - 2007 - New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    In this book I offer a critical, comparative and empirically-informed defense of Islamic schools in the West. To do so I elaborate an idealized philosophy of Islamic education, against which I evaluate the situation in three different Western countries. I examine in detail notions of cultural coherence, the scope of parental authority v. a child's interests, as well as the state's role in regulating religious schools. Further, using Catholic schools as an analogous case, I speculate on the likely future (...)
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  24. On Gadamerian Hermeneutics: Fusions of Horizons, Dialogue, and Evolution(s) within Culture as Dynamic System of Meaning.Iñaki Xavier Larrauri Pertierra - 2020 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 4 (4):45-62.
    Culture as a dynamic system of meaningful relations can naturally accommodate a hermeneutic analysis. In this essay, the notion of Gadamer’s hermeneutics as involving interpretable meaning throughout experiential reality permits a natural concordance with an understanding of culture as meaningful. The Gadamerian idea that prejudices inform the horizons that make our experiences intelligible is applied to the view that culture is both a self-enclosed structure that is given by one’s horizon and one that continuously points past this horizon in genuine (...)
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  25. On Charlie Gard: Ethics, Culture, and Religion.Marvin J. H. Lee - 2018 - Journal of Healthcare Ethics and Administration 4 (2):1-17.
    The 2017 story of Charlie Gard is revisited. Upon the British High Court’s ruling in favor of the physicians that the infant should be allowed to die without the experimental treatment, the view of the public as well as the opinions of bioethicists and Catholic bishops are divided, interestingly along with a cultural line. American bioethicists and Catholic bishops tend to believe that the parents should have the final say while British/European bioethicists and Catholic bishops in general side with (...)
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  26. Cross-cultural Research, Evolutionary Psychology, and Racialism: Problems and Prospects. Jackson Jr - 2016 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 8 (20160629).
    This essay is a defense of the social construction of racialism. I follow a standard definition of “racialism” which is the belief that “there are heritable characteristics, possessed by members of our species, that allow us to divide them into a small set of races, in such a way that all the members of these races share certain traits and tendencies with each other that they do not share with other members of any other race”. In particular I want to (...)
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  27. Cultural Configurations of Values.Chenyang Li - 2008 - The Journal of International Issues 12 (2):28-49.
    All cultures are infused by or even rooted in certain values. Although those values are generally recognised in all societies, they are diversely ranked or proritised in different human groups and different perceptions partly account for cultural diversity as not all values can be equally upheld in any community or by any individual. Though value universalism in a strict sense is unachievable, we can all agree on a pluralistic mutual understanding of and tolerance for diversity.
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  28. The Idea of a Cultural Aesthetic.Arnold Berleant - 2003 - Dialogue and Universalism 13 (11-12):113-122.
    In this time of increasing international involvement, one cannot but be struck by the fact of sharply different traditions concerning art and its practice.3 Recognizing that the arts are a salient part of every culture may lead us to wonder about their features and may make us curious about how and why the arts of other cultures differ from what we find more familiar. Perhaps we hope that the arts will offer us some insight into different cultures and their distinctive (...)
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  29. Culture as ‘Ways of Life’ or a Mask of Racism? Culturalisation and the Decline of Universalist Views.Saladdin Ahmed - 2015 - Critical Race and Whiteness Studies 11:1-17.
    I begin and conclude the article by arguing that culturalisation has contributed significantly to the decline of the Left and its universal ideals. In the current climate of public opinion, ‘race’ is no longer used, at least openly, as a scientific truth to justify racism. Instead, ‘culture’ has become the mysterious term that has made the perpetuation of racist discourse possible. ‘Culture’, in this newracist worldview, is the unquestioned set of traits continually attributed to the non-White Other, essentially to de-world (...)
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  30. Group-level differences in visual search asymmetry.Emily S. Cramer, Michelle J. Dusko & Ronald A. Rensink - 2016 - Attention Perception and Psychophysics 78:1585-1602.
    East Asians and Westerners differ in various aspects of perception and cognition. For example, visual memory for East Asians is believed to be more influenced by the contextual aspects of a scene than is the case for Westerners (Masuda & Nisbett, 2001). There are also differences in visual search: for Westerners, search for a long line among short is faster than for short among long, whereas this difference does not appear to hold for East Asians (Ueda et al., submitted). (...)
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  31. Are Cultural Explanations for Racial Disparities Racist?Peter Bornschein - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Research.
    Negative characteristics are sometimes attributed to racial groups on the basis of culture. Sometimes these cultural characteristics are invoked to explain racial disparities. Many antiracist activists and intellectuals argue that such attributions are racist and, in this respect, are no different than attributions of negative characteristics to a racial group based on biology. In a recent essay, Lawrence Blum provides a typology of different kinds of views that attribute negative cultural characteristics to racial groups. One of the views (...)
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  32. The Cultural Definition of Art.Simon Fokt - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (4):404-429.
    Most modern definitions of art fail to successfully address the issue of the ever-changing nature of art, and rarely even attempt to provide an account that would be valid in more than just the modern Western context. This article develops a new theory that preserves the advantages of its predecessors, solves or avoids their problems, and has a scope wide enough to account for art of different times and cultures. It argues that an object is art in a given context (...)
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  33. Understanding Cultural Traits: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on Cultural Diversity.Fabrizio Panebianco & Emanuele Serrelli (eds.) - 2018 - Springer.
    UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2 November 2001) defines culture with an emphasis on cultural features: “culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group”, encompassing, “in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs”. Cultural traits are also the primitive of mathematical models of cultural transmission inspired by population genetics, imported and refined by economics. Any (...)
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  34. The Cultural Violence of Non-violence.Jason A. Springs - 2016 - Journal of Mediation and Applied Conflict Analysis 3 (1):382-396.
    This paper explores the difference it makes to incorporate the multi-focal conception of violence that has emerged in peace studies over recent decades into the discourse of non-violent direct action (Galtung 1969, 1990; Uvin 2003; Springs 2015b). I argue that non-violent action can and should incorporate and deploy the distinctions between direct, cultural, and structural forms of violence. On one hand, these analytical distinctions can facilitate forms of self-reflexive critical analysis that guard against certain violent conceptual and practical implications (...)
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  35. Cultural Pluralism and Epistemic Injustice.Göran Collste - 2019 - Journal of Nationalism, Memory and Language Politics 13 (2):1-12.
    For liberalism, values such as respect, reciprocity, and tolerance should frame cultural encounters in multicultural societies. However, it is easy to disregard that power differences and political domination also influence the cultural sphere and the relations between cultural groups. In this essay, I focus on some challenges for cultural pluralism. In relation to Indian political theorist Rajeev Bhargava, I discuss the meaning of cultural domination and epistemic injustice and their historical and moral implications. Bhargava (...)
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  36. Culture or Biology? If this sounds interesting, you might be confused.Sebastian Watzl - 2019 - In Jaan Valsinger (ed.), Social Philosophy of Science for the Social Sciences. Springer. pp. 45-71.
    Culture or Biology? The question can seem deep and important. Yet, I argue in this chapter, if you are enthralled by questions about our biological differences, then you are probably confused. My goal is to diagnose the confusion. In debates about the role of biology in the social world it is easy to ask the wrong questions, and it is easy to misinterpret the scientific research. We are intuitively attracted to what is called psychological essentialism, and therefore interpret what (...)
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  37. Neutrality, Cultural Literacy, and Arts Funding.Jack Alexander Hume - 2024 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 10 (55):1588-1617.
    Despite the widespread presence of public arts funding in liberal societies, some liberals find it unjustified. According to the Neutrality Objection, arts funding preferences some ways of life. One way to motivate this challenge is to say that a public goods-styled justification, although it could relieve arts funding of these worries of partiality, cannot be argued for coherently or is, in the end, too susceptible to impressions of partiality. I argue that diversity-based arts funding can overcome this challenge, because it (...)
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  38. Embraining Culture: Leaky Minds and Spongy Brains.Julian Kiverstein & Mirko Farina - 2011 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (2).
    We offer an argument for the extended mind based on considerations from brain development. We argue that our brains develop to function in partnership with cognitive resources located in our external environments. Through our cultural upbringing we are trained to use artefacts in problem solving that become factored into the cognitive routines our brains support. Our brains literally grow to work in close partnership with resources we regularly and reliably interact with. We take this argument to be in line (...)
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  39. Distance Learning: Empathy and Culture in Junot Diaz’s “Wildwood”. [REVIEW]Rebecca Garden - 2013 - Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (4):439-450.
    This essay discusses critical approaches to culture, difference, and empathy in health care education through a reading of Junot Diaz’s “Wildwood” chapter from the 2007 novel The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. I begin with an analysis of the way that Diaz’s narrative invites readers to imagine and explore the experiences of others with subtlety and complexity. My reading of “Wildwood” illuminates its double-edged injunction to try to imagine another’s perspective while recognizing the limits to—or even the impossibility of—that (...)
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  40. Cross-cultural Issues in European Bioethics.Donna L. Dickenson - 1999 - Bioethics 13 (3-4):249-255.
    This article, arising from a comparative European Commission project, analyses different national perspectives on bioethics issues.
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  41. A multi-modal, cross-cultural study of the semantics of intellectual humility.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    Intellectual humility can be broadly construed as being conscious of the limits of one’s existing knowledge and capable to acquire more knowledge, which makes it a key virtue of the information age. However, the claim “I am (intellectually) humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. There is an explanatory gap between the meaning of the sentence and the meaning the speaker ex- presses by uttering it. We therefore suggest analyzing intellectual (...)
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  42. Politics of difference and nationalism: On Iris young's global vision.Ranjoo Seodu Herr - 2008 - Hypatia 23 (3):pp. 39-59.
    Iris Marion Young’s politics of difference promotes equality among socially and culturally different groups within multicultural states and advocates group autonomy to empower such groups to develop their own voice. Extending the politics of difference to the international sphere, Young advocates “decentered diverse democratic federalism” that combines local self-determination and cosmopolitanism, while adamantly rejecting nationalism. Herr argues that nationalism, charitably interpreted, is not only consistent with Young’s politics of difference but also necessary for realizing Young’s ideal in the global arena.
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  43. What is a meaningful role? Accounting for culture in fish and wildlife management in rural Alaska.Jeffrey Brooks & Kevin Bartley - 2016 - Human Ecology 44 (5):517-531.
    The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 requires federal agencies to provide a meaningful role for rural subsistence harvesters in management of fish and wildlife in Alaska. We constructed an interpretive analysis of qualitative interviews with residents of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Stakeholders' perceptions of their roles and motivations to participate in collaborative management are linked to unseen and often ignored cultural features and differing worldviews that influence outcomes of collaboration. Agencies need to better understand Yup'ik preferences for (...)
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  44. Socio-Cultural Traits and Gender Elements: An Analysis through Indian Diaspora in Germany (2nd edition).Maya Subrahmanian - 2022 - International Journal of Diaspora and Cultural Criticism 12:175-208.
    What makes a culture and what are the cultural traits identified by people are important questions to be developed more within diaspora studies. This article proposes a critical inquiry into the ways of defining socio-cultural traits through the discussions with Indian diaspora living in the context of Western culture. It suggests hypothesis that there is a possibility of hybrid cultures between the Eastern and Western. The ontological status of being ‘Indian’ would be different while living in India and (...)
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  45. Gospel and Culture: Areas of Conflict, Consent, and Conversion.Domenic Marbaniang - 2014 - Journal of the Contemporary Christian 6 (1):07-17.
    Culture and Religion have fundamental differences. Culture is related to nature, while religion emphasizes on authority and revelation. Culture naturally is more dynamic, while culture religionised is stagnant and conservative.
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  46. Cultural variation in cognitive flexibility reveals diversity in the development of executive functions.Cristine Legare, Michael Dale, Sarah Kim & Gedeon Deak - 2018 - Nature Scientific Reports 8 (16326):1-14.
    Cognitive flexibility, the adaptation of representations and responses to new task demands, improves dramatically in early childhood. It is unclear, however, whether flexibility is a coherent, unitary cognitive trait, or is an emergent dimension of task-specific performance that varies across populations with divergent experiences. Three-to 5-year-old English-speaking U.S. children and Tswana-speaking South African children completed two distinct language-processing cognitive flexibility tests: the FIM-Animates, a word-learning test, and the 3DCCS, a rule-switching test. U.S. and South African children did not differ in (...)
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  47. Rethinking the Culture - Economy Dialectic.Lajos L. Brons - 2005 - Dissertation, University of Groningen
    The culture-economy dialectic (CED) – the opposition of the concepts and phenomena of culture and economy – is one of the most important ideas in the modern history of ideas. Both disciplinary boundaries and much theoretical thought in social science are strongly influenced or even determined by the CED. For that reason, a thorough analysis and evaluation of the CED is needed to improve understanding of the history of ideas in social science and the currently fashionable research on the (...) influences on economic differences between countries and regions. This thesis is an attempt to do just that. The concepts of “culture” and “economy” (and related concepts) and the (assumed) relations therebetween are compared and analyzed. Empirical results from earlier studies are summarized and some new test are presented. These new tests are partly based on a measurement of Dutch regional culture. However, most theories of the CED are (nearly) impossible to verify (empirically). There appears to be some influence of wealth on specific cultural phenomena (such as individualism and post-materialism), but the often assumed influence of culture on entrepreneurship and economic growth remains unconfirmed. Moreover, from an analysis of the theories themselves, it appears that most of these cannot be falsified and are, therefore, hardly 'scientific'. Many of the theories of the CED and, in fact, many theories of social science in general are of a conceptual rather than a causal nature. These theories cannot be falsified (or verified) by empirical means alone, but must be studied by means of conceptual analysis. In the final conclusions, this thesis, therefore, argues for conceptual analysis in – and a more anarchist approach to – social science. (shrink)
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  48. Différence sexuelle, différence idéologique : Lectures à contretemps (Derrida lisant Marx et Althusser, dans les années 1970 et au-delà).Thomas Clément Mercier - 2020 - Décalages 2 (3):1-51.
    Cet essai présente une description de plusieurs travaux inédits de Jacques Derrida au sujet de Marx et d'Althusser datant des années 1960 et 1970. Au-delà du travail philologique, il s'agit aussi d'une étude théorique de notions telles que 'idéologie', 'fétichisme', 'reproduction', 'division du travail', 'différence sexuelle', 'domination', 'économie politique', 'matérialisme dialectique', ou 'production culturelle' — tout autant à travers les textes marxistes que dans les lectures déconstructives qu'en propose alors Derrida. Durant les années 1970, dans le cadre de son séminaire, (...)
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  49. Culture on the Social Ladder-from the Greek Tradition to the Christian Paideia (2nd edition).Petar Nurkić - 2022 - Synthesis Philosophica 37 (2):429-446.
    In the culture of ancient Greece, the term Paideia (Greek: παιδεία) referred to the upbringing and education of an ideal member of the polis. However, the period from Homer's epic poetry (9th or 8th century BCE) to the Peloponnesian War (5th century BCE) differs notably, concerning the forms of Hellenistic culture after the emergence of Christianity (especially from 2nd to 9th century AD). For that reason, it is necessary to consider what significance Paideia had in different historical periods of Greek (...)
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  50. Utilizing the Project Method for Teaching Culture and Intercultural Competence.Sasha S. Euler - 2017 - Die Unterrichtspraxis 50 (1):67–78.
    This article presents a detailed methodological outline for teaching culture through project work. It is argued that because project work makes it possible to gain transferrable and applicable knowledge and insight, it is the ideal tool for teaching culture with the aim of achieving real intercultural communicative competence (ICC). Preceding the pedagogical presentation, the term culture is conceptualized as small-c culture/deep culture, that is, as the sociopsychological programming of a given community. This concept is developed with practical examples and conceptualizations (...)
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