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  1. The Deliberative Stit: A Study of Action, Omission, Ability, and Obligation. [REVIEW]John F. Horty & Nuel Belnap - 1995 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (6):583 - 644.
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  • Branching Space-Time.Nuel Belnap - 1992 - Synthese 92 (3):385 - 434.
    Branching space-time is a simple blend of relativity and indeterminism. Postulates and definitions rigorously describe the causal order relation between possible point events. The key postulate is a version of everything has a causal origin; key defined terms include history and choice point. Some elementary but helpful facts are proved. Application is made to the status of causal contemporaries of indeterministic events, to how splitting of histories happens, to indeterminism without choice, and to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen distant correlations.
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  • The Way of the Agent.Nuel Belnap & Michael Perloff - 1992 - Studia Logica 51 (3-4):463 - 484.
    The conditional,if an agent did something, then the agent could have done otherwise, is analyzed usingstit theory, which is a logic of seeing to it that based on agents making choices in the context of branching time. The truth of the conditional is found to be a subtle matter that depends on how it is interpreted (e.g., on what otherwise refers to, and on the difference between could and might) and also on whether or not there are busy choosers that (...)
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  • Propositional Q-Logic.Stefan Wölfl - 2002 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (5):387-414.
    Topic of the paper is Q-logic - a logic of agency in its temporal and modal context. Q-logic may be considered as a basal logic of agency since the most important stitoperators discussed in the literature can be defined or axiomatized easily within its semantical and syntactical framework. Its basic agent dependent operator, the Q-operator (also known as Δ- or cstit-operator), which has been discussed independently by E v. Kutschera and B. E Chellas, is investigated here in respect of its (...)
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  • Dynamic Models in Imperative Logic (Imperatives in Action: Changing Minds and Norms).Berislav Žarnić - 2011 - In Anna Brozek, Jacek Jadacki & Berislav Žarnić (eds.), Theory of Imperatives from Different Points of View (2). Wydawnictwo Naukowe Semper.
    The theory of imperatives is philosophically relevant since in building it — some of the long standing problems need to be addressed, and presumably some new ones are waiting to be discovered. The relevance of the theory of imperatives for philosophical research is remarkable, but usually recognized only within the field of practical philosophy. Nevertheless, the emphasis can be put on problems of theoretical philosophy. Proper understanding of imperatives is likely to raise doubts about some of our deeply entrenched and (...)
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  • In the Realm of Agents.Nuel Belnap & Michael Perloff - unknown
    Stit theory (a logic of seeing-to-it-that) is applied to cases involving many agents. First treated are complex nestings of stits involving distinct agents. The discussion is driven by the logical impossibility of "a sees to it that b sees to it that Q" in the technical sense, even though that seems to make sense in everyday language, Of special utility are the concepts of "forced choice", of the creation of deontic states, and of probabilities, Second, joint agency, both plain and (...)
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  • Backwards and Forwards in the Modal Logic of Agency.Nuel Belnap - 1991 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51 (4):777-807.
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  • The Modal Logic of Agency.Dag Elgesem - 1997 - Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 2:1-46.
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  • Causation.Kutschera Franz - 1993 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (6):563-588.
    As cause we often specify an event the occurrence of which first guaranteed that of the effect. This notion is explicated in a framework of branching worlds in Sections I to V. VI and VII point out its close relations to the concept of an agent's bringing about an event. The topic of the last two sections is the distinction between causes and necessary circumstances. For this purpose conditionals are used, interpreted with respect to branching worlds without a similarity relation (...)
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  • Rich Deontic Logic: A Preliminary Study.Mark A. Brown - 2004 - Journal of Applied Logic 2 (1):19-37.
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  • Inference as Doxastic Agency. Part I: The Basics of Justification Stit Logic.Grigory K. Olkhovikov & Heinrich Wansing - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (1):167-194.
    In this paper we consider logical inference as an activity that results in proofs and hence produces knowledge. We suggest to merge the semantical analysis of deliberatively seeing-to-it-that from stit theory and the semantics of the epistemic logic with justification from. The general idea is to understand proving that A as seeing to it that a proof of A is available. We introduce a semantics of various notions of proving as an activity and present a number of valid principles that (...)
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  • Busy Choice Sequences Refraining Formulas and Modalities.Ming Xu - 1995 - Studia Logica 54 (3):267 - 301.
    The purpose of this paper is to present some results instit theory, a theory of agency proposed by N. Belnap and M. Perloff. We will establish a correspondence between the numbers ofstit modalities and the complexity degrees ofbusy choice sequences in semantic structures, and consequently, a correspondence between the number of modes of actions/inactions instit theory and the complexity degrees ofbusy choice sequences in semantic structures.
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  • Agents Necessitating Effects in Newtonian Time and Space: From Power and Opportunity to Effectivity.Jan Broersen - 2019 - Synthese 196 (1):31-68.
    We extend stit logic by adding a spatial dimension. This enables us to distinguish between powers and opportunities of agents. Powers are agent-specific and do not depend on an agent’s location. Opportunities do depend on locations, and are the same for every agent. The central idea is to define the real possibility to see to the truth of a condition in space and time as the combination of the power and the opportunity to do so. The focus on agent-relative powers (...)
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  • Obligation, Contracts, and Negotiation: Outlining an Approach.Mark A. Brown - 2005 - Journal of Applied Logic 3 (3-4):371-395.
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  • Stit and the Language of Agency.Michael Perloff - 1991 - Synthese 86 (3):379 - 408.
    Stit, a sentence form first introduced in Belnap and Perloff (1988), encourages a modal approach to agency. Von Wright, Chisholm, Kenny, and Castañeda have all attempted modal treatments of agency, while Davidson has rejected such treatments. After a brief explanation of the syntax and semantics of stit and a restatement of several of the important claims of the earlier paper, I discuss the virtues of stit against the background of proposals made by these philososphers.
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  • Axioms for Deliberative Stit.Ming Xu - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (5):505-552.
    Based on a notion of "companions to stit formulas" applied in other papers dealing with astit logics, we introduce "choice formulas" and "nested choice formulas" to prove the completeness theorems for dstit logics in a language with the dstit operator as the only non-truth-functional operator. The main logic discussed in this paper is the basic logic of dstit with multiple agents, other logics discussed include the basic logic of dstit with a single agent and some logics of dstit with multiple (...)
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  • Actions and Outcomes: Two Aspects of Agency.Beth Huffer - 2007 - Synthese 157 (2):241-265.
    Agency can be construed as both the manner in which autonomous individuals embark on particular courses of action (or inaction), and the relationship between such agents and the outcomes of the courses of action on which they embark. A promising strategy for understanding both senses of agency consists in the combination of a modal logic of agency and branching time semantics. Such is the strategy behind stit theory, the theory of agentive action developed by Nuel Belnap and others. However, stit (...)
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  • Decidability of Logics Based on an Indeterministic Metric Tense Logic.Yan Zhang & Kai Li - 2015 - Studia Logica 103 (6):1123-1162.
    This paper presents two general results of decidability concerning logics based on an indeterministic metric tense logic, which can be applied to, among others, logics combining knowledge, time and agency. We provide a general Kripke semantics based on a variation of the notion of synchronized Ockhamist frames. Our proof of the decidability is by way of the finite frame property, applying subframe transformations and a variant of the filtration technique.
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  • Combinations of Stit with Ought and Know.Ming Xu - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (6):851-877.
    This paper presents a short survey of recent developments in stit theories, with an emphasis on combinations of stit and deontic logic, and those of stit and epistemic logic.
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  • On the Basic Logic of STIT with a Single Agent.Ming Xu - 1995 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (2):459-483.
    We present in this paper an axiomatization of Belnap and Perloff's stit theory (a logic of "seeing to it that") with a single agent. The idea of the proof is to apply the notion of companion sets--the same notion as used in another paper by the author that showed the decidability of stit theory with a single agent and Refref equivalence.
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  • Decidability Ofstit Theory with a Single Agent Andrefref Equivalence.Ming Xu - 1994 - Studia Logica 53 (2):259 - 298.
    The purpose of this paper is to prove the decidability ofstit theory (a logic of seeing to it that) with a single agent andRefref Equivalence. This result is obtained through an axiomatization of the theory and a proof that it has thefinite model property. A notion ofcompanions to stit formulas is introduced and extensively used in the proof.
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  • Doing and Refraining From Refraining.Ming Xu - 1994 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 23 (6):621 - 632.
    The main purpose of this paper is to prove that in every stit semantic structure that contains a busy choice sequence, neither does doing imply refraining from refraining from doing, nor does refraining from refraining from doing imply doing.
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  • Actions as Events.Ming Xu - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (4):765 - 809.
    We present a theory of actions based on a theory of events in branching time, in which "particular" or "token" actions are taken to be sets of transitions from their initial states to the outcomes. We also present a simple theory of composition of events by which composite events can be formed out of other events. Various kinds of actions, including instantaneous group actions and sequential group actions, are introduced by way of composition, and an extended stit theory of agency (...)
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