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  1. Moral Neuroenhancement for Prisoners of War.Blake Hereth - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-20.
    Moral agential neuroenhancement can transform us into better people. However, critics of MB raise four central objections to MANEs use: It destroys moral freedom; it kills one moral agent and replaces them with another, better agent; it carries significant risk of infection and illness; it benefits society but not the enhanced person; and it’s wrong to experiment on nonconsenting persons. Herein, I defend MANE’s use for prisoners of war fighting unjustly. First, the permissibility of killing unjust combatants entails that, in (...)
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  • Brain Privacy and the Case of Cannibal Cop.Mark Tunick - 2017 - Res Publica 23 (2):179-196.
    In light of technology that may reveal the content of a person’s innermost thoughts, I address the question of whether there is a right to ‘brain privacy’—a right not to have one’s inner thoughts revealed to others–even if exposing these thoughts might be beneficial to society. I draw on a conception of privacy as the ability to control who has access to information about oneself and to an account that connects one’s interest in privacy to one’s interests in autonomy and (...)
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  • Punishment as Moral Fortification and Non-Consensual Neurointerventions.Areti Theofilopoulou - 2019 - Law and Philosophy 38 (2):149-167.
    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, I defend and expand the Fortificationist Theory of Punishment. Second, I argue that this theory implies that non-consensual neurointerventions – interventions that act directly on one’s brain – are permissible. According to the FTP, punishment is justified as a way of ensuring that citizens who infringe their duty to demonstrate the reliability of their moral powers will thereafter be able to comply with it. I claim that the FTP ought to be expanded (...)
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  • Wired Emotions: Ethical Issues of Affective Brain–Computer Interfaces.Steffen Steinert & Orsolya Friedrich - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):351-367.
    Ethical issues concerning brain–computer interfaces have already received a considerable amount of attention. However, one particular form of BCI has not received the attention that it deserves: Affective BCIs that allow for the detection and stimulation of affective states. This paper brings the ethical issues of affective BCIs in sharper focus. The paper briefly reviews recent applications of affective BCIs and considers ethical issues that arise from these applications. Ethical issues that affective BCIs share with other neurotechnologies are presented and (...)
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  • Forensic Practitioners’ Views on Stimulating Moral Development and Moral Growth in Forensic Psychiatric Care.Jona Specker, Farah Focquaert, Sigrid Sterckx & Maartje H. N. Schermer - 2018 - Neuroethics 13 (1):73-85.
    In the context of debates on psychiatry issues pertaining to moral dimensions of psychiatric health care are frequently discussed. These debates invite reflection on the question whether forensic practitioners have a role in stimulating patients’ moral development and moral growth in the context of forensic psychiatric and psychological treatment and care. We conducted a qualitative study to examine to what extent forensic practitioners consider moral development and moral growth to be a part of their current professional practices and to what (...)
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  • Neuroethics Beyond Normal.John R. Shook & James Giordano - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (1):121-140.
    :An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither “treatments” nor “enhancements” are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body (...)
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  • The Right to Bodily Integrity and the Rehabilitation of Offenders Through Medical Interventions: A Reply to Thomas Douglas.Elizabeth Shaw - 2016 - Neuroethics 12 (1):97-106.
    Medical interventions such as methadone treatment for drug addicts or “chemical castration” for sex offenders have been used in several jurisdictions alongside or as an alternative to traditional punishments, such as incarceration. As our understanding of the biological basis for human behaviour develops, our criminal justice system may make increasing use of such medical techniques and may become less reliant on incarceration. Academic debate on this topic has largely focused on whether offenders can validly consent to medical interventions, given the (...)
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  • Predictive Brain Devices, Therapeutic Activation Systems, and Aggression.Jesper Ryberg - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (4):36-38.
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  • Neuroscience, Mind Reading and Mental Privacy.Jesper Ryberg - 2017 - Res Publica 23 (2):197-211.
    Many theorists have expressed the view that current or future applications of neurotechnology may prompt serious ethical problems in terms of privacy. This article concerns the question as to whether involuntary neurotechnological mind reading can plausibly be held to violate a person’s moral right to mental privacy. It is argued that it is difficult to specify what a violation of a right to mental privacy amounts to in a way that is consistent with the fact that we usually regard natural (...)
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  • Justifications for Non-­Consensual Medical Intervention: From Infectious Disease Control to Criminal Rehabilitation.Jonathan Pugh & Thomas Douglas - 2016 - Criminal Justice Ethics 35 (3):205-229.
    A central tenet of medical ethics holds that it is permissible to perform a medical intervention on a competent individual only if that individual has given informed consent to the intervention. However, in some circumstances it is tempting to say that the moral reason to obtain informed consent prior to administering a medical intervention is outweighed. For example, if an individual’s refusal to undergo a medical intervention would lead to the transmission of a dangerous infectious disease to other members of (...)
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  • Moral Bio-Enhancement, Freedom, Value and the Parity Principle.Jonathan Pugh - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):73-86.
    A prominent objection to non-cognitive moral bio-enhancements is that they would compromise the recipient’s ‘freedom to fall’. I begin by discussing some ambiguities in this objection, before outlining an Aristotelian reading of it. I suggest that this reading may help to forestall Persson and Savulescu’s ‘God-Machine’ criticism; however, I suggest that the objection still faces the problem of explaining why the value of moral conformity is insufficient to outweigh the value of the freedom to fall itself. I also question whether (...)
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  • Should Violent Offenders Be Forced to Undergo Neurotechnological Treatment? A Critical Discussion of the ‘Freedom of Thought’ Objection.Thomas Søbirk Petersen & Kristian Kragh - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (1):30-34.
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  • Power to the People? Voter Manipulation, Legitimacy, and the Relevance of Moral Psychology for Democratic Theory.Norbert Paulo & Christoph Bublitz - 2016 - Neuroethics 12 (1):55-71.
    What should we do if climate change or global injustice require radical policy changes not supported by the majority of citizens? And what if science shows that the lacking support is largely due to shortcomings in citizens’ individual psychology such as cognitive biases that lead to temporal and geographical parochialism? Could then a plausible case for enhancing the morality of the electorate—even against their will –be made? But can a democratic government manipulate the will of the people without losing democratic (...)
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  • Introduction: Political Implications of Moral Enhancement.Norbert Paulo & Christoph Bublitz - 2016 - Neuroethics 12 (1):1-3.
    What should we do if climate change or global injustice require radical policy changes not supported by the majority of citizens? And what if science shows that the lacking support is largely due to shortcomings in citizens’ individual psychology such as cognitive biases that lead to temporal and geographical parochialism? Could then a plausible case for enhancing the morality of the electorate—even against their will –be made? But can a democratic government manipulate the will of the people without losing democratic (...)
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  • When Should the Police Investigate Cases of Non-Recent Child Sexual Abuse?Hannah Maslen & Colin Paine - 2019 - Criminal Justice Ethics 38 (2):65-102.
    Non-recent child sexual abuse and child sexual exploitation have received recent attention. Victims often do not report their ordeal at the time the incident occurred, and it is increas...
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  • Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement : How Neuroscientific Research Could Advance Ethical Debate.Hannah Maslen, Nadira Faulmüller & Julian Savulescu - unknown
    There are numerous ways people can improve their cognitive capacities: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can (...)
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  • The Future of Neuroethics and the Relevance of the Law.Sjors Ligthart, Thomas Douglas, Christoph Bublitz & Gerben Meynen - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):120-121.
    Open Peer Commentary, referring to "Neuroethics at 15: The Current and Future Environment for Neuroethics".
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  • Is Virtually Everything Possible? The Relevance of Ethics and Human Rights for Introducing Extended Reality in Forensic Psychiatry.Sjors Ligthart, Gerben Meynen, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Tijs Kooijmans & Philipp Kellmeyer - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (3):144-157.
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  • Losing Meaning: Philosophical Reflections on Neural Interventions and their Influence on Narrative Identity.Muriel Leuenberger - 2021 - Neuroethics (3):491-505.
    The profound changes in personality, mood, and other features of the self that neural interventions can induce can be disconcerting to patients, their families, and caregivers. In the neuroethical debate, these concerns are often addressed in the context of possible threats to the narrative self. In this paper, I argue that it is necessary to consider a dimension of impacts on the narrative self which has so far been neglected: neural interventions can lead to a loss of meaning of actions, (...)
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  • Moral Bioenhancement Through Memory-Editing: A Risk for Identity and Authenticity?Andrea Lavazza - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):15-27.
    Moral bioenhancement is the attempt to improve human behavioral dispositions, especially in relation to the great ethical challenges of our age. To this end, scientists have hypothesised new molecules or even permanent changes in the genetic makeup to achieve such moral bioenhancement. The philosophical debate has focused on the permissibility and desirability of that enhancement and the possibility of making it mandatory, given the positive result that would follow. However, there might be another way to enhance the overall moral behavior (...)
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  • Erasing Traumatic Memories: When Context and Social Interests Can Outweigh Personal Autonomy.Andrea Lavazza - 2015 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 10:3.
    Neuroscientific research on the removal of unpleasant and traumatic memories is still at a very early stage, but is making rapid progress and has stirred a significant philosophical and neuroethical debate. Even if memory is considered to be a fundamental element of personal identity, in the context of memory-erasing the autonomy of decision-making seems prevailing. However, there seem to be situations where the overall context in which people might choose to intervene on their memories would lead to view those actions (...)
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  • Objections to Coercive Neurocorrectives for Criminal Offenders –Why Offenders’ Human Rights Should Fundamentally Come First.Lando Kirchmair - 2019 - Criminal Justice Ethics 38 (1):19-40.
    “Committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention”, claims Thomas Douglas, who stated in this context that “compulsory uses of medical correctives could i...
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  • Big Brain Data: On the Responsible Use of Brain Data from Clinical and Consumer-Directed Neurotechnological Devices.Philipp Kellmeyer - 2018 - Neuroethics 14 (1):83-98.
    The focus of this paper are the ethical, legal and social challenges for ensuring the responsible use of “big brain data”—the recording, collection and analysis of individuals’ brain data on a large scale with clinical and consumer-directed neurotechnological devices. First, I highlight the benefits of big data and machine learning analytics in neuroscience for basic and translational research. Then, I describe some of the technological, social and psychological barriers for securing brain data from unwarranted access. In this context, I then (...)
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  • Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity: Ethical Considerations.Jonathan Iwry, David B. Yaden & Andrew B. Newberg - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
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  • Respect, Punishment and Mandatory Neurointerventions.Sebastian Jon Holmen - 2020 - Neuroethics 14 (2):167-176.
    The view that acting morally is ultimately a question of treating others with respect has had a profound influence on moral and legal philosophy. Not surprisingly, then, some scholars forcefully argue that the modes of punishment that the states mete out to offenders should not be disrespectful, and, furthermore, it has been argued that obliging offenders to receive neurological treatment is incompatible with showing them their due respect. In this paper, I examine three contemporary accounts of what showing respect for (...)
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  • Ought the State Use Non-Consensual Treatment to Restore Trial Competence?Sebastian Jon Holmen - forthcoming - Res Publica:1-17.
    The important question of the legality of the state obliging trial incompetent defendants to receive competency-restoring treatment against their wishes, is one that has received much attention by legal scholars. Surprisingly, however, little attention has been paid to the, in many ways more fundamental, moral question of whether the state ought to administer such treatments. The aim of this paper is to start filling this gap in the literature. I begin by offering some reasons for thinking it morally acceptable to, (...)
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  • Direct Brain Interventions, Changing Values and the Argument From Objectification – a Reply to Elizabeth Shaw.Sebastian Holmen - 2017 - Neuroethics 11 (2):217-227.
    This paper critically discusses the argument from objectification – as recently presented by Elizabeth Shaw – against mandatory direct brain interventions targeting criminal offenders’ values as part of rehabilitative or reformative schemes. Shaw contends that such DBIs would objectify offenders because a DBI “excludes offenders by portraying them as a group to whom we need not listen” and “implies that offenders are radically defective with regard to one of the most fundamental aspects of their agency”. To ensure that offenders are (...)
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  • Cognitive Diminishments and Crime Prevention: “Too Smart for the Rest of Us”?Sebastian Jon Holmen - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-13.
    In this paper, I discuss whether it is ever morally permissible to diminish the cognitive abilities or capacities of some cognitively gifted offenders whose ability to commit their crimes successfully relies on them possessing these abilities or capacities. I suggest that, given such cognitive diminishments may prevent such offenders from re-offending and causing others considerable harm, this provides us with at least one good moral reason in favour of employing them. After setting out more clearly what cognitive diminishment may consist (...)
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  • A Note on Psychological Continuity Theories of Identity and Neurointerventions.Sebastian Jon Holmen - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (10):742-745.
    An important concern sometimes voiced in the neuroethical literature is that swift and radical changes to the parts of a person’s mental life essential for sustaining his/her numerical identity can result in the person ceasing to exist—in other words, that these changes may disrupt psychological continuity. Taking neurointerventions used for rehabilitative purposes as a point of departure, this short paper argues that the same radical alterations of criminal offenders’ psychological features which under certain conditions would result in a disruption of (...)
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  • What is Criminal Rehabilitation?Lisa Forsberg & Thomas Douglas - 2022 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 16 (1):103-126.
    It is often said that the institutions of criminal justice ought or—perhaps more often—ought not to rehabilitate criminal offenders. But the term ‘criminal rehabilitation’ is often used without being explicitly defined, and in ways that are consistent with widely divergent conceptions. In this paper, we present a taxonomy that distinguishes, and explains the relationships between, different conceptions of criminal rehabilitation. Our taxonomy distinguishes conceptions of criminal rehabilitation on the basis of the aims or ends of the putatively rehabilitative measure, and (...)
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  • Moral Enhancement: Do Means Matter Morally?Farah Focquaert & Maartje Schermer - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (2):139-151.
    One of the reasons why moral enhancement may be controversial, is because the advantages of moral enhancement may fall upon society rather than on those who are enhanced. If directed at individuals with certain counter-moral traits it may have direct societal benefits by lowering immoral behavior and increasing public safety, but it is not directly clear if this also benefits the individual in question. In this paper, we will discuss what we consider to be moral enhancement, how different means may (...)
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  • Optogenetic Memory Modification and the Many Facets of Authenticity.Alexandre Erler - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):40-42.
    Open Peer Commentary on P. Zawadzki and A. K. Adamczyk's target article in AJOB Neuroscience on the potential of optogenetics for memory modification. I argue for a radically pluralistic understanding of the notion of authenticity, and highlight the need to further clarify the specific nature of the authors' concern about authenticity, as well as its policy implications.
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  • Is Incarceration Better Than Neurointervention? On the Intended Harms of Prison.James Edgar Lim - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (3):168-170.
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  • Infection Control for Third-Party Benefit: Lessons From Criminal Justice.Thomas Douglas - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (1):17-31.
    This article considers what can be learned regarding the ethical acceptability of intrusive interventions intended to halt the spread of infectious disease from existing ethical discussion of intrusive interventions used to prevent criminal conduct. The main body of the article identifies and briefly describes six objections that have been advanced against Crime Control, and considers how these might apply to Infection Control. The final section then draws out some more general lessons from the foregoing analysis for the ethical acceptability of (...)
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  • Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity.Thomas Douglas - 2014 - The Journal of Ethics 18 (2):101-122.
    Criminal offenders are sometimes required, by the institutions of criminal justice, to undergo medical interventions intended to promote rehabilitation. Ethical debate regarding this practice has largely proceeded on the assumption that medical interventions may only permissibly be administered to criminal offenders with their consent. In this article I challenge this assumption by suggesting that committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention. I then consider whether it is possible to respond persuasively to this challenge (...)
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  • The Expressivist Objection to Nonconsensual Neurocorrectives.Gabriel De Marco & Thomas Douglas - 2021 - Criminal Law and Philosophy (2).
    Neurointerventions—interventions that physically or chemically modulate brain states—are sometimes imposed on criminal offenders for the purposes of diminishing the risk that they will recidivate, or, more generally, of facilitating their rehabilitation. One objection to the nonconsensual implementation of such interventions holds that this expresses a disrespectful message, and is thus impermissible. In this paper, we respond to this objection, focusing on the most developed version of it—that presented by Elizabeth Shaw. We consider a variety of messages that might be expressed (...)
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  • The Conditions for Ethical Chemical Restraints.Parker Crutchfield & Michael Redinger - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience:1-14.
    The practice of medicine frequently involves the unconsented restriction of liberty. The reasons for unilateral liberty restrictions are typically that being confined, strapped down, or sedated are necessary to prevent the person from harming themselves or others. In this paper, we target the ethics of chemical restraints, which are medications that are used to intentionally restrict the mental states associated with the unwanted behaviors, and are typically not specifically indicated for the condition for which the patient is being treated. Specifically, (...)
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  • Incarceration, Direct Brain Intervention, and the Right to Mental Integrity – a Reply to Thomas Douglas.Jared N. Craig - 2016 - Neuroethics 9 (2):107-118.
    In recent years, direct brain interventions have shown increased success in manipulating neurobiological processes often associated with moral reasoning and decision-making. As current DBIs are refined, and new technologies are developed, the state will have an interest in administering DBIs to criminal offenders for rehabilitative purposes. However, it is generally assumed that the state is not justified in directly intruding in an offender’s brain without valid consent. Thomas Douglas challenges this view. The state already forces criminal offenders to go to (...)
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  • Benign Biological Interventions to Reduce Offending.Olivia Choy, Farah Focquaert & Adrian Raine - 2018 - Neuroethics 13 (1):29-41.
    A considerable body of evidence now documents, beyond reasonable doubt, biological and health risk factors for crime and violence. Nevertheless, intervention and prevention efforts with offenders have avoided biological interventions, in part due to past misuses of biological research and the challenges that biological predispositions to crime raise. This article reviews the empirical literature on two biological intervention approaches, omega-3 supplementation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Emerging research on these relatively benign interventions suggests that increased omega-3 intake through dietary intervention (...)
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  • Beyond the Technology: Attribution and Agency in Treatments for Mental Disorders.Laura Y. Cabrera, Rachel McKenzie & Robyn Bluhm - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (2):92-94.
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  • Saving the World Through Sacrificing Liberties? A Critique of Some Normative Arguments in Unfit for the Future.Jan Christoph Bublitz - 2016 - Neuroethics 12 (1):23-34.
    The paper critically engages with some of the normative arguments in Julian Savulescu and Ingmar Persson’s book Unfit for the Future. In particular, it scrutinizes the authors’ argument in denial of a moral right to privacy as well as their political proposal to alter humankind’s moral psychology in order to avert climate change, terrorism and to redress global injustice.
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  • Extended Reality, Mental Liberty, and State Power in Forensic Settings.Marc Jonathan Blitz - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (3):173-176.
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  • Punishing Intentions and Neurointerventions.David Birks & Alena Buyx - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (3):133-143.
    How should we punish criminal offenders? One prima facie attractive punishment is administering a mandatory neurointervention—interventions that exert a physical, chemical or biological effect on the brain in order to diminish the likelihood of some forms of criminal offending. While testosterone-lowering drugs have long been used in European and US jurisdictions on sex offenders, it has been suggested that advances in neuroscience raise the possibility of treating a broader range of offenders in the future. Neurointerventions could be a cheaper, and (...)
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  • Law, Cyborgs, and Technologically Enhanced Brains.Woodrow Barfield & Alexander Williams - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (1):4.
    As we become more and more enhanced with cyborg technology, significant issues of law and policy are raised. For example, as cyborg devices implanted within the body create a class of people with enhanced motor and computational abilities, how should the law and policy respond when the abilities of such people surpass those of the general population? And what basic human and legal rights should be afforded to people equipped with cyborg technology as they become more machine and less biology? (...)
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  • Law, Cyborgs, and Technologically Enhanced Brains.Woodrow Barfield & Alexander Williams - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (1):6.
    As we become more and more enhanced with cyborg technology, significant issues of law and policy are raised. For example, as cyborg devices implanted within the body create a class of people with enhanced motor and computational abilities, how should the law and policy respond when the abilities of such people surpass those of the general population? And what basic human and legal rights should be afforded to people equipped with cyborg technology as they become more machine and less biology? (...)
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  • La Place du Normatif En Morale.Bernard Baertschi - 2001 - Philosophiques 28 (1):69-86.
    On a reproché au modèle perceptuel de la connaissance morale d'être inadéquat en ce qu'il serait incapable d'expliquer le signe distinctif et fondamental de l'éthique, à savoir son caractère normatif. Je tente de montrer que la critique n'est pas pertinente, car le normatif n'a en réalité qu'une place dérivée en morale : l'éthique est d'abord une question de valeurs, entités dont il est tout à fait plausible de dire que nous les percevons. Pour justifier la place dérivée du normatif, je (...)
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  • Real Virtuality: A Code of Ethical Conduct. Recommendations for Good Scientific Practice and the Consumers of VR-Technology.Michael Madary & Thomas Metzinger - 2016 - Frontiers in Robotics and AI 3:1-23.
    The goal of this article is to present a first list of ethical concerns that may arise from research and personal use of virtual reality (VR) and related technology, and to offer concrete recommendations for minimizing those risks. Many of the recommendations call for focused research initiatives. In the first part of the article, we discuss the relevant evidence from psychology that motivates our concerns. In Section “Plasticity in the Human Mind,” we cover some of the main results suggesting that (...)
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  • The Morality of Moral Neuroenhancement.Thomas Douglas - forthcoming - In Clausen Jens & Levy Neil (eds.), Handbook of Neuroethics. Springer.
    This chapter reviews recent philosophical and neuroethical literature on the morality of moral neuroenhancements. It first briefly outlines the main moral arguments that have been made concerning moral status neuroenhancements. These are neurointerventions that would augment the moral status of human persons. It then surveys recent debate regarding moral desirability neuroenhancements: neurointerventions that augment that the moral desirability of human character traits, motives or conduct. This debate has contested, among other claims (i) Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu’s contention that there (...)
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  • Extending Pereboom's Quarantine System.Nathan Houck - unknown
    Derk Pereboom argues that human beings do not have the kind of free will required for moral responsibility. Pereboom argues that we should use a system of incarceration for criminal offenders based on a quarantine analogy. Patients in quarantine scenarios are not responsible for their sickness, are separated from society because of the danger they pose, and are prepared for release as soon as possible. By analogy, criminal offenders should also be separated from society and rehabilitated to prepare them for (...)
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  • Introduction.Thomas Douglas & David Birks - 2018 - In David Birks & Thomas Douglas (eds.), Treatment for Crime: Philosophical Essays on Neurointerventions in Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Crime-preventing neurointerventions (CPNs) are increasingly being used or advocated for crime prevention. There is increasing use of testosterone-lowering agents to prevent recidivism in sexual offenders, and strong political and scientific interest in developing pharmaceutical treatments for psychopathy and anti-social behaviour. Recent developments suggest that we may ultimately have at our disposal a range of drugs capable of suppressing violent aggression, and it is not difficult to imagine possible applications of such drugs in crime prevention. But should neurointerventions be used in (...)
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