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  1. Legitimate Healthcare Limit Setting in a Real-World Setting: Integrating Accountability for Reasonableness and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.K. Baeroe & R. Baltussen - 2014 - Public Health Ethics 7 (2):98-111.
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  • Just Care: Should Doctors Give Priority to Patients of Low Socioeconomic Status?S. A. Hurst - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (1):7-11.
    Growing data on the socioeconomic determinants of health pose a challenge to analysis and application of fairness in health. In Just health: meeting health needs fairly, Norman Daniels argues for a change in the population end of our thinking about just health. What about clinical care? Given our knowledge of the importance of wealth, education or social status to health, is fairness in medicine served better by continuing to avoid considering our patients’ social status in setting clinical priorities, or by (...)
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  • Priority-Setting in Healthcare: A Framework for Reasonable Clinical Judgements.K. Baeroe - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):488-496.
    What are the criteria for reasonable clinical judgements? The reasonableness of macro-level decision-making has been much discussed, but little attention has been paid to the reasonableness of applying guidelines generated at a macro-level to individual cases. This paper considers a framework for reasonable clinical decision-making that will capture cases where relevant guidelines cannot reasonably be followed. There are three main sections. (1) Individual claims on healthcare from the point of view of concerns about equity are analysed. (2) The demands of (...)
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  • Gini Impact Analysis: Measuring Pure Health Inequity Before and After Interventions.O. F. Norheim - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (3):282-292.
    The aims of the paper are (i) to introduce a framework for reasoning about equity in health distribution before and after interventions, and (ii) to assess various Gini measures applied to healthy life expectancy against explicit normative concerns. Part 1 discusses different ways of measuring pure health inequality and suggests that a modified Gini measure could be used to measure inequity in health before and after treatment. Part 2 introduces a framework for reasoning about distributions of health. Part 3 discusses (...)
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  • Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare: Beyond Accountability for Reasonableness.Sigurd Lauridsen & Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen - 2009 - Public Health Ethics 2 (1):59-69.
    PhD, Institute of Public Health, Unit of Medical Philosophy and Clinical Theory, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, P.O. Box 2099 1014 Copenhagen. Tel: +45 30 32 33 63; Email: s.lauridsen{at}pubhealth.ku.dk ' + u + '@ ' + d + ' '/ /- ->Citizens’ consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any (...)
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  • Allocating Resources in Humanitarian Medicine.Samia A. Hurst, Nathalie Mezger & Alex Mauron - 2009 - Public Health Ethics 2 (1):89-99.
    Fair resource allocation in humanitarian medicine is gaining in importance and complexity, but remains insufficiently explored. It raises specific issues regarding non-ideal fairness, global solidarity, legitimacy in non-governmental institutions and conflicts of interest. All would benefit from further exploration. We propose that some headway could be made by adapting existing frameworks of procedural fairness for use in humanitarian organizations. Despite the difficulties in applying it to humanitarian medicine, it is possible to partly adapt Daniels and Sabin's ‘Accountability for reasonableness’ to (...)
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  • Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Susceptible Subpopulations From Environmental Health Risks: Liberty, Utility, Fairness, and Accountability for Reasonableness.David B. Resnik, D. Robert MacDougall & Elise M. Smith - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (3):29-41.
    Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main ethical rationale for providing these protections is to ensure that environmental health risks are distributed fairly. In this article, we consider how several influential theories of justice deal with issues related to the distribution of environmental health risks; show that these theories often fail to provide specific guidance concerning policy choices; and (...)
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  • Priority-Setting in International Non-Governmental Organizations: It is Not as Easy as ABCD.Lisa Fuller - 2012 - Journal of Global Ethics 8 (1):5-17.
    Recently theorists have demonstrated a growing interest in the ethical aspects of resource allocation in international non-governmental humanitarian, development and human rights organizations (INGOs). This article provides an analysis of Thomas Pogge's proposal for how international human rights organizations ought to choose which projects to fund. Pogge's allocation principle states that an INGO should govern its decision making about candidate projects by such rules and procedures as are expected to maximize its long-run cost-effectiveness, defined as the expected aggregate moral value (...)
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  • Priority-Setting in Healthcare: A Framework for Reasonable Clinical Judgements.Kristine Bærøe - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):488-496.
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  • Why Even Egalitarians Should Favor Market Health Insurance.Daniel Shapiro - 1998 - Social Philosophy and Policy 15 (2):84.
    Socialism is dead, though many of its academic proponents take no notice of its demise. With its death, private property in the means of production is not generally in dispute, and the action in political philosophy centers on the justification of the welfare state. The heart of the welfare state is social insurance programs, such as government managed and subsidized health insurance, retirement pensions, and unemployment insurance. The arguments about health insurance will arguably be among the most ferocious, difficult, and (...)
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  • Cómo tomar decisiones justas en el camino hacia la cobertura universal de salud.Ole Frithjof Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Bona Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Frehiwot Defaye, Nir Eyal, Walter Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, Lydia Kapiriri, Toby Ord, Shlomi Segall, Gita Sen, Alex Voorhoeve, Tessa T. T. Edejer, Andreas Reis, Ritu Sadana, Carla Saenz, Alicia Yamin & Daniel Wikler - 2015 - Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO).
    La cobertura universal de salud está en el centro de la acción actual para fortalecer los sistemas de salud y mejorar el nivel y la distribución de la salud y los servicios de salud. Este documento es el informe fi nal del Grupo Consultivo de la OMS sobre la Equidad y Cobertura Universal de Salud. Aquí se abordan los temas clave de la justicia (fairness) y la equidad que surgen en el camino hacia la cobertura universal de salud. Por lo (...)
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  • Gaps, Conflicts, and Consensus in the Ethics Statements of Professional Associations, Medical Groups, and Health Plans.N. D. Berkman - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):395-401.
    Background: Patients today interact with physicians, physician groups, and health plans, each of which may follow distinct ethical guidelines.Method: We systematically compared physician codes of ethics with ethics policies at physician group practices and health plans, using the 1998–99 policies of 38 organisations—18 medical associations , nine physician group practices , and 12 health plans —selected using random and stratified purposive sampling. A clinician and a social scientist independently abstracted each document, using a 397-item health care ethics taxonomy; a reconciled (...)
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  • HIV Priorities and Health Distributions in a Rural Region in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.Kjell Arne Johansson, Ingrid Miljeteig, Hamisi Kigwangalla & Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):221-226.
    Next SectionBackground International and national agencies play a major role in setting HIV care-and-treatment priorities in low-income-countries. Little is known about priority setting at lower health-system levels. The objective of this article is to explore experiences of HIV priority decisions, at what levels these decisions are made and how they might influence the distribution of health benefits in a high-endemic region in Tanzania. Methods This is a qualitative study using observations, key documents and semistructured focus-group and individual interviews (43) with (...)
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  • Benefit Versus Numbers Versus Helping the Worst-Off: An Alternative to the Prevalent Approach to the Just Distribution of Resources.Andrew Stark - 2008 - Utilitas 20 (3):356-382.
    A central strand in philosophical debate over the just distribution of resources attempts to juggle three competing imperatives: helping those who are worst off, helping those who will benefit the most, and then – beyond this – determining when to aggregate such ‘worst off’ and ‘benefit’ claims, and when instead to treat no such claim as greater than that which any individual by herself can exert. Yet as various philosophers have observed, ‘we have no satisfactory theoretical characterization’ as to how (...)
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  • The Distinct and Complementary Roles of Procedural and Outcome-Based Justice in Health Policy.Gerard Vong - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (3):59-60.
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  • Legitimate Healthcare Limit Setting in a Real-World Setting: Integrating Accountability for Reasonableness and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.Kristine Bærøe & Rob Baltussen - 2014 - Public Health Ethics 7 (2):98-111.
    The overall aim of this article is to discuss the organization of limit setting in healthcare in terms of legitimacy. We argue there is a strong ethical demand that such processes should be arranged to provide adversely affected people well-justified reasons to confer legitimacy to the processes despite favouring a different decision-making outcome. Two increasingly popular approaches, Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), can both be applied to support legitimate decision-making processes. However, the role played by ‘fair-minded (...)
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  • Vulnerability in Research and Health Care; Describing the Elephant in the Room?Samia A. Hurst - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (4):191–202.
    Despite broad agreement that the vulnerable have a claim to special protection, defining vulnerable persons or populations has proved more difficult than we would like. This is a theoretical as well as a practical problem, as it hinders both convincing justifications for this claim and the practical application of required protections. In this paper, I review consent-based, harm-based, and comprehensive definitions of vulnerability in healthcare and research with human subjects. Although current definitions are subject to critique, their underlying assumptions may (...)
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  • Administrative Gatekeeping – a Third Way Between Unrestricted Patient Advocacy and Bedside Rationing.Sigurd Lauridsen - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (5):311-320.
    The inevitable need for rationing of healthcare has apparently presented the medical profession with the dilemma of choosing the lesser of two evils. Physicians appear to be obliged to adopt either an implausible version of traditional professional ethics or an equally problematic ethics of bedside rationing. The former requires unrestricted advocacy of patients but prompts distrust, moral hazard and unfairness. The latter commits physicians to rationing at the bedside; but it is bound to introduce unfair inequalities among patients and lack (...)
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  • Priority Rules as Solutions to Conflicting Health Care Rights.Anna-Karin Andersson, Frode Lindemark & Kjell Arne Johansson - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (1):67-76.
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  • Accountability for Rationing - Theory Into Practice.Christopher Newdick - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (4):660-668.
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  • Rights to Specialized Health Care in Norway: A Normative Perspective.Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (4):641-649.
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  • Accountability for Rationing — Theory Into Practice.Christopher Newdick - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (4):660-668.
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  • Rights to Specialized Health Care in Norway: A Normative Perspective.Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (4):641-649.
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