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  1. Enhancement, Biomedical.Thomas Douglas - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Biomedical technologies can increasingly be used not only to combat disease, but also to augment the capacities or traits of normal, healthy people – a practice commonly referred to as biomedical enhancement. Perhaps the best‐established examples of biomedical enhancement are cosmetic surgery and doping in sports. But most recent scientific attention and ethical debate focuses on extending lifespan, lifting mood, and augmenting cognitive capacities.
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  • Cognitive Enhancement Vs. Plagiarism: A Quantitative Study on the Attitudes of an Italian Sample.Lorenzo Palamenghi & Claudia Bonfiglioli - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (3):279-292.
    Irrespective of the presence of formal norms, behaviours such as plagiarism, data fabrication and falsification are commonly regarded as unethical and unfair. Almost unanimously, they are considered forms of academic misconduct. Is this the case also for newer behaviours that technology is making possible and are now entering the academic scenario?In the current paper we focus on cognitive enhancement, the use of drugs to enhance cognitive skills of an otherwise healthy individual. At present, there are no formal rules forbidding its (...)
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  • Autonomy, Rationality, and Contemporary Bioethics.Jonathan Pugh - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Personal autonomy is often lauded as a key value in contemporary Western bioethics. Though the claim that there is an important relationship between autonomy and rationality is often treated as uncontroversial in this sphere, there is also considerable disagreement about how we should cash out the relationship. In particular, it is unclear whether a rationalist view of autonomy can be compatible with legal judgments that enshrine a patient's right to refuse medical treatment, regardless of whether the reasons underpinning the choice (...)
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  • Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs, Behavioral Training and the Mechanism of Cognitive Enhancement.Emma Peng Chien - 2013 - In Elisabeth Hildt & Andreas G. Franke (eds.), Cognitive Enhancement: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 139-144.
    In this chapter, I propose the mechanism of cognitive enhancement based on studies of cognitive-enhancing drugs and behavioral training. I argue that there are mechanistic differences between cognitive-enhancing drugs and behavioral training due to their different enhancing effects. I also suggest possible mechanisms for cognitive-enhancing drugs and behavioral training and for the synergistic effects of their simultaneous application.
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  • Achievement and Enhancement.Lisa Forsberg & Anthony Skelton - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):322-338.
    We engage with the nature and the value of achievement through a critical examination of an argument according to which biomedical “enhancement” of our capacities is impermissible because enhancing ourselves in this way would threaten our achievements. We call this the argument against enhancement from achievement. We assess three versions of it, each admitting to a strong or a weak reading. We argue that strong readings fail, and that weak readings, while in some cases successful in showing that enhancement interferes (...)
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  • Enhancement and Desert.Thomas Douglas - 2019 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 18 (1):3-22.
    It is sometimes claimed that those who succeed with the aid of enhancement technologies deserve the rewards associated with their success less, other things being equal, than those who succeed without the aid of such technologies. This claim captures some widely held intuitions, has been implicitly endorsed by participants in social–psychological research and helps to undergird some otherwise puzzling philosophical objections to the use of enhancement technologies. I consider whether it can be provided with a rational basis. I examine three (...)
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  • “The White Version of Cheating?” Ethical and Social Equity Concerns of Cognitive Enhancing Drug Users in Higher Education.Ross Aikins - 2019 - Journal of Academic Ethics 17 (2):111-130.
    So-called cognitive enhancing drugs are relatively common in higher education, especially among students who are white, male, and attend highly selective institutions. Using qualitative data from a diverse sample of 32 students at an elite university, the present study aims to examine whether students perceive CED use to be advantageous, equitable, and fair. Participants were either medical or nonmedical users of CEDs—primarily ADHD stimulant medications such as Adderall. Data were first coded openly, then axially into themes, and finally arranged to (...)
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  • Public Opinion on Cognitive Enhancement Varies Across Different Situations.Claire T. Dinh, Stacey Humphries & Anjan Chatterjee - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (4):224-237.
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  • “It Was Me on a Good Day”: Exploring the Smart Drug Use Phenomenon in England.Elisabeth J. Vargo & Andrea Petróczi - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Why is Cognitive Enhancement Deemed Unacceptable? The Role of Fairness, Deservingness, and Hollow Achievements.Nadira S. Faber, Julian Savulescu & Thomas Douglas - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    We ask why pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) is generally deemed morally unacceptable by lay people. Our approach to this question has two core elements. First, we employ an interdisciplinary perspective, using philosophical rationales as base for generating psychological models. Second, by testing these models we investigate how different normative judgments on PCE are related to each other. Based on an analysis of the relevant philosophical literature, we derive two psychological models that can potentially explain the judgment that PCE is unacceptable: (...)
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  • Praiseworthiness and Motivational Enhancement: ‘No Pain, No Praise’?Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu & Carin Hunt - 2020 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 98 (2):304-318.
    The view that exertion of effort determines praiseworthiness for an achievement is implicit in ‘no pain, no praise’-style objections to biomedical enhancement. On such views, if enhancements were t...
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  • Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement : How Neuroscientific Research Could Advance Ethical Debate.Hannah Maslen, Nadira Faulmüller & Julian Savulescu - unknown
    There are numerous ways people can improve their cognitive capacities: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can (...)
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  • The Myth of Cognitive Enhancement Drugs.Hazem Zohny - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (3):257-269.
    There are a number of premises underlying much of the vigorous debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement. Among these are claims in the enhancement literature that such drugs exist and are effective among the cognitively normal. These drugs are deemed to enhance cognition specifically, as opposed to other non-cognitive facets of our psychology, such as mood and motivation. The focus on these drugs as cognitive enhancers also suggests that they raise particular ethical questions, or perhaps more pressing ones, compared to those (...)
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  • Humility Pills: Building an Ethics of Cognitive Enhancement.Rob Goodman - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (3):258-278.
    The use of cognition-enhancing drugs (CEDs) appears to be increasingly common in both academic and workplace settings. But many universities and businesses have not yet engaged with the ethical challenges raised by CED use. This paper considers criticisms of CED use with a particular focus on the Accomplishment Argument: an influential set of claims holding that enhanced work is less dignified, valuable, or authentic, and that cognitive enhancement damages our characters. While the Accomplishment Argument assumes a view of authorship based (...)
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  • Enhancement & Desert.Thomas Douglas - forthcoming - Politics, Philosophy and Economics.
    It is sometimes claimed that those who succeed with the aid of enhancement technologies deserve the rewards associated with their success less, other things being equal, than those who succeed without the aid of such technologies. This claim captures some widely held intuitions, has been implicitly endorsed by participants in social-psychological research, and helps to undergird some otherwise puzzling philosophical objections to the use of enhancement technologies. I consider whether it can be provided with a rational basis. I examine three (...)
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  • If You’Re Smart, We’Ll Make You Smarter: Applying the Reasoning Behind the Development of Honours Programmes to Other Forms of Cognitive Enhancement.Bas Olthof, Anco Peeters, Kimberly Schelle & Pim Haselager - 2013 - In Federica Lucivero & Anton Vedder (eds.), Beyond Therapy v. Enhancement? Multidisciplinary analyses of a heated debate. Pisa University Press. pp. 117-142.
    Students using Ritalin in preparation for their exams is a hotly debated issue, while meditating or drinking coffee before those same exams is deemed uncontroversial. However, taking Ritalin, meditating and drinking coffee or even education in general, can all be considered forms of cognitive enhancement. Although social acceptance might change in the future, it is interesting to examine the current reasons that are used to distinguish cases deemed problematic or unproblematic. Why are some forms of cognitive enhancement considered problematic, while (...)
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  • Cognitive Enhancement and Academic Misconduct: A Study Exploring Their Frequency and Relationship.Veljko Dubljević, Sebastian Sattler & Éric Racine - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (5):408-420.
    We investigated the acceptability and frequency of the use of cognitive enhancement (CE) drugs and three different types of academic misconduct (plagiarism, cheating in exams, and falsifying/fabricating data). Data from a web-based survey among German university students were used. Moral acceptability was relatively low for CE drug use and moderate for academic misconduct, while the correlation of their respective acceptability was moderately weak. Prevalence of CE drug use was lower than for academic misconduct and (very) lightly correlated with the prevalence (...)
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  • Attitudes Toward Cognitive Enhancement: The Role of Metaphor and Context.Erin C. Conrad, Stacey Humphries & Anjan Chatterjee - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (1):35-47.
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  • A Comparison of Attitudes Toward Pharmacological Treatment Versus Enhancement Under Competitive and Noncompetitive Conditions.Jeffrey M. Rudski - 2014 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 5 (2):80-90.
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  • Virtue Games—Real Drugs.John T. Holden, Anastasios Kaburakis & Joanna Wall Tweedie - 2018 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 13 (1):19-32.
    The growth of esports as a recognized, organized, competitive activity in North America and Europe has evolved steadily from one of the most prominent sport industries in several Asian countries. Esports, which is still pursuing a widely accepted governance structure, has struggled to control the factors that typically act as a breeding ground for sport corruption. Within the esports industry, there is alleged widespread use of both prescription and off-label use of stimulants, such as modafinil, methylphenidate, and dextroamphetamine. Anti-doping policy (...)
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  • What Do You Mean I Wasn't Cheating? Testing the Concept of Cheating Through a Case of Failed Doping.Ken Kirkwood - 2014 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 8 (1):57-64.
    Using a case of intended but failed doping, the author seeks to answer the question of if an agent cheated when they intended to but failed in the case of doping due to inert, counterfeit drugs. The examination looks at the case using the concept of cheating and concludes by dividing the results of cheating into primary and secondary effects.
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