Switch to: References

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. The Iconic-Symbolic Spectrum.Gabriel Greenberg - 2023 - Philosophical Review 132 (4):579-627.
    It is common to distinguish two great families of representation. Symbolic representations include logical and mathematical symbols, words, and complex linguistic expressions. Iconic representations include dials, diagrams, maps, pictures, 3-dimensional models, and depictive gestures. This essay describes and motivates a new way of distinguishing iconic from symbolic representation. It locates the difference not in the signs themselves, nor in the contents they express, but in the semantic rules by which signs are associated with contents. The two kinds of rule have (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Pictorial Syntax.Kevin J. Lande - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    It is commonly assumed that images, whether in the world or in the head, do not have a privileged analysis into constituent parts. They are thought to lack the sort of syntactic structure necessary for representing complex contents and entering into sophisticated patterns of inference. I reject this assumption. “Image grammars” are models in computer vision that articulate systematic principles governing the form and content of images. These models are empirically credible and can be construed as literal grammars for images. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Can Negation Be Depicted? Comparing Human and Machine Understanding of Visual Representations.Yuri Sato, Koji Mineshima & Kazuhiro Ueda - 2023 - Cognitive Science 47 (3):e13258.
    There is a widely held view that visual representations (images) do not depict negation, for example, as expressed by the sentence, “the train is not coming.” The present study focuses on the real-world visual representations of photographs and comic (manga) illustrations and empirically challenges the question of whether humans and machines, that is, modern deep neural networks, can recognize visual representations as expressing negation. By collecting data on the captions humans gave to images and analyzing the occurrences of negation phrases, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Lying versus misleading, with language and pictures: the adverbial account.Manuel García-Carpintero - 2023 - Linguistics and Philosophy 46 (3):509-532.
    We intuitively make a distinction between _lying_ and _misleading_. On the explanation of this phenomenon favored here—the _adverbial_ account—the distinction tracks whether the content and its truth-committing force are literally conveyed. On an alternative _commitment_ account, the difference between lying and misleading is predicated instead on the strength of assertoric commitment. One lies when one presents with full assertoric commitment what one believes to be false; one merely misleads when one presents it without full assertoric commitment, by merely hinting or (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Emojis as Pictures.Emar Maier - 2023 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 10.
    I argue that emojis are essentially little pictures, rather than words, gestures, expressives, or diagrams. ???? means that the world looks like that, from some viewpoint. I flesh out a pictorial semantics in terms of geometric projection with abstraction and stylization. Since such a semantics delivers only very minimal contents I add an account of pragmatic enrichment, driven by coherence and nonliteral interpretation. The apparent semantic distinction between emojis depicting entities (like ????) and those depicting facial expressions (like ????) I (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Musical meaning within Super Semantics.Philippe Schlenker - 2022 - Linguistics and Philosophy 45 (4):795-872.
    As part of a recent attempt to extend the methods of formal semantics beyond language, it has been claimed that music has an abstract truth-conditional semantics, albeit one that has more in common with iconic semantics than with standard compositional semantics. After summarizing this approach and addressing a common objection, we argue that music semantics should be enriched in three directions by incorporating insights of other areas of Super Semantics. First, it has been claimed by Abusch 2013 that visual narratives (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Super Linguistics: an introduction.Pritty Patel-Grosz, Salvador Mascarenhas, Emmanuel Chemla & Philippe Schlenker - 2023 - Linguistics and Philosophy 46 (4):627-692.
    We argue that formal linguistic theory, properly extended, can provide a unifying framework for diverse phenomena beyond traditional linguistic objects. We display applications to pictorial meanings, visual narratives, music, dance, animal communication, and, more abstractly, to logical and non-logical concepts in the ‘language of thought’ and reasoning. In many of these cases, a careful analysis reveals that classic linguistic notions are pervasive across these domains, such as for instance the constituency (or grouping) core principle of syntax, the use of logical (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Super Linguistics: an introduction.Pritty Patel-Grosz, Salvador Mascarenhas, Emmanuel Chemla & Philippe Schlenker - 2023 - Linguistics and Philosophy Super Linguistics Special Issue.
    We argue that formal linguistic theory, properly extended, can provide a unifying framework for diverse phenomena beyond traditional linguistic objects. We display applications to pictorial meanings, visual narratives, music, dance, animal communication, and, more abstractly, to logical and non-logical concepts in the ‘language of thought’ and reasoning. In many of these cases, a careful analysis reveals that classic linguistic notions are pervasive across these domains, such as for instance the constituency (or grouping) core principle of syntax, the use of logical (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • A semantics of face emoji in discourse.Patrick Georg Grosz, Gabriel Greenberg, Christian De Leon & Elsi Kaiser - 2023 - Linguistics and Philosophy 46 (4):905-957.
    This paper presents an analysis of face emoji (disc-shaped pictograms with stylized facial expressions) that accompany written text. We propose that there is a use of face emoji in which they comment on a target proposition expressed by the accompanying text, as opposed to making an independent contribution to discourse. Focusing on positively valenced and negatively valenced emoji (which we gloss as _happy_ and _unhappy_, respectively), we argue that the emoji comment on how the target proposition bears on a contextually (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Modeling the Meanings of Pictures[REVIEW]Gabriel Greenberg - 2022 - Philosophical Review 131 (3):373-378.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Meaningful Blurs: the sources of repetition-based plurals in ASL.Philippe Schlenker & Jonathan Lamberton - 2021 - Linguistics and Philosophy 45 (2):201-264.
    In several sign languages, plurals can be realized with unpunctuated or punctuated repetitions of a noun, with different semantic implications; similar repetition-based plurals have been described in some homesigns and silent gestures. Unpunctuated repetitions often get approximate ‘at least’ readings while punctuated repetitions typically correspond to ‘exactly’ readings. The prevalence of these mechanisms could be thought to be a case in which Universal Grammar does not just specify the abstract properties of grammatical elements, but also their phonological realization, at least (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations