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  1. Instinct in the ‘50s: The British Reception of Konrad Lorenz’s Theory of Instinctive Behavior.Paul E. Griffiths - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (4):609-631.
    At the beginning of the 1950s most students of animal behavior in Britain saw the instinct concept developed by Konrad Lorenz in the 1930s as the central theoretical construct of the new ethology. In the mid 1950s J.B.S. Haldane made substantial efforts to undermine Lorenz''s status as the founder of the new discipline, challenging his priority on key ethological concepts. Haldane was also critical of Lorenz''s sharp distinction between instinctive and learnt behavior. This was inconsistent with Haldane''s account of the (...)
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  • Evolutionary Progress: Stephen Jay Gould’s Rejection and Its Critique.Jianhui Li - 2019 - Philosophy Study 9 (6).
    In evolutionary theory, we generally believe that the evolution of life is from simple to complex, from single to diverse, and from lower to higher. Thus, the idea of evolutionary progress appears obvious. However, in contemporary academic circles, some biologists and philosophers challenge this idea. Among them, Gould is the most influential. This paper first describes Gould’s seven arguments against evolutionary progress, i.e., the human arrogance argument, anthropocentric argument, no inner thrust argument, no biological base argument, extreme contingency argument, statistical (...)
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  • We're All Behavioral Economists Now.Erik Angner - 2019 - Journal of Economic Methodology 26 (3):195-207.
    ABSTRACTBehavioral economics has long defined itself in opposition to neoclassical economics, but recent developments suggest a synthesis may be on the horizon. In particular, several economists have argued that behavioral factors can be incorporated into standard theory, and that the days of behavioral economics are therefore numbered. This paper explores the proposed synthesis and argues that it is distinctly behavioral in nature – not neoclassical. Far from indicating that behavioral economics as a stand-alone research program is over, the proposed synthesis (...)
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  • Genetic Assimilation and a Possible Evolutionary Paradox: Can Macroevolution Sometimes Be so Fast to Pass Us By?Massimo Pigliucci - 2003 - Evolution 57 (7):1455-1464.
    The idea of genetic assimilation, that environmentally induced phenotypes may become genetically fixed and no longer require the original environmental stimulus, has had varied success through time in evolutionary biology research. Proposed by Waddington in the 1940s, it became an area of active empirical research mostly thanks to the efforts of its inventor and his collaborators. It was then attacked as of minor importance during the ‘‘hardening’’ of the neo-Darwinian synthesis and was relegated to a secondary role for decades. Recently, (...)
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  • Modern Synthesis is the Light of Microbial Genomics.Austin Booth, Carlos Mariscal & W. Ford Doolittle - 2016 - Annual Reviews of Microbiology 70 (1):279-297.
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  • The Only Wrong Cell is the Dead One: On the Enactive Approach to Normativity.Manuel Heras-Escribano, Jason Noble & Manuel De Pinedo García - 2013 - In Advances in Artificial Life (ECAL 2013). Cambridge, Massachusetts, EE. UU.: pp. 665-670.
    In this paper we challenge the notion of ‘normativity’ used by some enactive approaches to cognition. We define some varieties of enactivism and their assumptions and make explicit the reasoning behind the co-emergence of individuality and normativity. Then we argue that appealing to dispositions for explaining some living processes can be more illuminating than claiming that all such processes are normative. For this purpose, we will present some considerations, inspired by Wittgenstein, regarding norm-establishing and norm-following and show that attributions of (...)
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  • Die Architektur der Synthese. Entstehung und Philosophie der modernen Evolutionstheorie.Marcel Weber - 1996 - Dissertation, University of Konstanz
    This Ph.D. thesis provides a pilosophical account of the structure of the evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and 40s. The first, more historical part analyses how classical genetics came to be integrated into evolutionary thinking, highlighting in particular the importance of chromosomal mapping of Drosophila strains collected in the wild by Dobzansky, but also the work of Goldschmidt, Sumners, Timofeeff-Ressovsky and others. The second, more philosophical part attempts to answer the question wherein the unity of the synthesis consisted. I argue (...)
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  • Species, Demes, and the Omega Taxonomy: Gilmour and the Newsystematics. [REVIEW]Mary Pickard Winsor - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):349-388.
    The word ``deme'' was coined by the botanists J.S.L. Gilmour and J.W.Gregor in 1939, following the pattern of J.S. Huxley's ``cline''. Its purposewas not only to rationalize the plethora of terms describing chromosomaland genetic variation, but also to reduce hostility between traditionaltaxonomists and researchers on evolution, who sometimes scorned eachother's understanding of species. A multi-layered system of compoundterms based on deme was published by Gilmour and J. Heslop-Harrison in1954 but not widely used. Deme was adopted with a modified meaning byzoologists (...)
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  • ‘‘Describing Our Whole Experience’’: The Statistical Philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson.Charles H. Pence - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (4):475-485.
    There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton’s footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a reading (...)
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  • DNA Dispose, but Subjects Decide. Learning and the Extended Synthesis.Markus Lindholm - 2015 - Biosemiotics 8 (3):443-461.
    Adaptation by means of natural selection depends on the ability of populations to maintain variation in heritable traits. According to the Modern Synthesis this variation is sustained by mutations and genetic drift. Epigenetics, evodevo, niche construction and cultural factors have more recently been shown to contribute to heritable variation, however, leading an increasing number of biologists to call for an extended view of speciation and evolution. An additional common feature across the animal kingdom is learning, defined as the ability to (...)
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  • The Invention of the Psychosocial: An Introduction.Rhodri Hayward - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (5):3-12.
    Although the compound adjective ‘psychosocial’ was first used by academic psychologists in the 1890s, it was only in the interwar period that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers began to develop detailed models of the psychosocial domain. These models marked a significant departure from earlier ideas of the relationship between society and human nature. Whereas Freudians and Darwinians had described an antagonistic relationship between biological instincts and social forces, interwar authors insisted that individual personality was made possible through collective organization. This (...)
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  • Drift: A Historical and Conceptual Overview.Anya Plutynski - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (2):156-167.
    There are several different ways in which chance affects evolutionary change. That all of these processes are called “random genetic drift” is in part a due to common elements across these different processes, but is also a product of historical borrowing of models and language across different levels of organization in the biological hierarchy. A history of the concept of drift will reveal the variety of contexts in which drift has played an explanatory role in biology, and will shed light (...)
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  • Fact, Phenomenon, and Theory in the Darwinian Research Tradition.Bruce H. Weber - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (2):168-178.
    From its inception Darwinian evolutionary biology has been seen as having a problematic relationship of fact and theory. While the forging of the modern evolutionary synthesis resolved most of these issues for biologists, critics continue to argue that natural selection and common descent are “only theories.” Much of the confusion engendered by the “evolution wars” can be clarified by applying the concept of phenomena, inferred from fact, and explained by theories, thus locating where legitimate dissent may still exist. By setting (...)
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  • Is Non-Genetic Inheritance Just a Proximate Mechanism? A Corroboration of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis.Alex Mesoudi, Simon Blanchet, Anne Charmantier, Étienne Danchin, Laurel Fogarty, Eva Jablonka, Kevin N. Laland, Thomas J. H. Morgan, Gerd B. Müller, F. John Odling-Smee & Benoît Pujol - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (3):189-195.
    What role does non-genetic inheritance play in evolution? In recent work we have independently and collectively argued that the existence and scope of non-genetic inheritance systems, including epigenetic inheritance, niche construction/ecological inheritance, and cultural inheritance—alongside certain other theory revisions—necessitates an extension to the neo-Darwinian Modern Synthesis (MS) in the form of an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). However, this argument has been challenged on the grounds that non-genetic inheritance systems are exclusively proximate mechanisms that serve the ultimate function of calibrating organisms (...)
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  • Evolutionary Theory in the 1920s: The Nature of the “Synthesis”.Sahotra Sarkar - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1215-1226.
    This paper analyzes the development of evolutionary theory in the period from 1918 to 1932. It argues that: (i) Fisher's work in 1918 constituted a not fully satisfactory reduction of biometry to Mendelism; (ii) there was a synthesis in the 1920s but that this synthesis was mainly one of classical genetics with population genetics, with Haldane's The Causes of Evolution being its founding document; (iii) the most important achievement of the models of theoretical population genetics was to show that natural (...)
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  • Primate Group Size, Brains and Communication: A New World Perspective.Charles H. Janson - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):711-712.
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  • Coevolution of Neocortical Size, Group Size and Language in Humans.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):681-694.
    Group size is a function of relative neocortical volume in nonhuman primates. Extrapolation from this regression equation yields a predicted group size for modern humans very similar to that of certain hunter-gatherer and traditional horticulturalist societies. Groups of similar size are also found in other large-scale forms of contemporary and historical society. Among primates, the cohesion of groups is maintained by social grooming; the time devoted to social grooming is linearly related to group size among the Old World monkeys and (...)
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  • La omnipresente selección natural.Andrés Galera - 2010 - Endoxa 24:47.
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  • The Modern Synthesis.Anya Plutynski - 2014 - Nature 514.
    Huxley coined the phrase, the “evolutionary synthesis” to refer to the acceptance by a vast majority of biologists in the mid-20th Century of a “synthetic” view of evolution. According to this view, natural selection acting on minor hereditary variation was the primary cause of both adaptive change within populations and major changes, such as speciation and the evolution of higher taxa, such as families and genera. This was, roughly, a synthesis of Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolutionary theory; it was a (...)
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  • Reflections on the Architecture of the Organic World and the Origin of Man.J. J. Duyvené de Wit - 1964 - Philosophia Reformata 29:150.
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  • Pierre Teilhard de Chardin the Founder of a New Pseudo-Christian Evolutionary Mysticism.J. J. Duyvené de Wit - 1964 - Philosophia Reformata 29:114.
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  • Functionalism and the Possibility of Group Selection.Vernon Pratt - 1975 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 5 (4):367.
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  • Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting.David J. Depew - 2010 - Science & Education 19 (4-5):323-366.
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  • On the Origins of Language: A History of Constraints and Windows of Opportunity.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):721-735.
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  • Did Primates Need More Than Social Grooming and Increased Group Size for Acquiring Language?Jan Wind - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):720-720.
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  • Social Complexity: The Roles of Primates' Grooming and People's Talking.Andrew Whiten - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):719-719.
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  • The Rest of the Story: Grooming, Group Size and Vocal Exchanges in Neotropical Primates.Charles T. Snowdon - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):718-718.
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  • Grooming is Not the Only Regulator of Primate Social Interactions.Robert M. Seyfarth & Dorothy L. Cheney - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):717-718.
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  • A Developmental Look at Grooming, Grunting and Group Cohesion.Lorraine McCune - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):716-717.
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  • Comparative Studies, Phylogenies and Predictions of Coevolutionary Relationships.Emília P. Martins - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):714-716.
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  • Group Size, Language and Evolutionary Mechanisms.Harold Kincaid - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):713-714.
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  • Number Our Days: Quantifying Social Evolution.Harry J. Jerison - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):712-713.
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  • Hunter-Gatherer Sociospatial Organization and Group Size.Robert Jarvenpa - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):712-712.
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  • Sizing Up Social Groups.Bob Jacobs & Michael J. Raleigh - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):710-711.
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  • Size of Human Groups During the Paleolithic and the Evolutionary Significance of Increased Group Size.Michael E. Hyland - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):709-710.
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  • Another Primate Brain Fiction: Brain Weight and Homogeneity.Ralph L. Holloway - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):707-708.
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  • The Functions of Grooming and Language: The Present Need Not Reflect the Past.Marc Hauser, Leah Gardner, Tony Goldberg & Adrian Treves - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):706-707.
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  • Brains, Grouping and Language.A. H. Harcourt - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):706-706.
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  • Anthropological Criticisms of Dunbar's Theory of the Origin of Language.Robert Bates Graber - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):705-705.
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  • Do Gossip and Lack of Grooming Make Us Human?Ilya I. Glezer & Warren G. Kinzey - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):704-705.
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  • Group Structure and Group Size Among Humans and Other Primates.Linton C. Freeman - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):703-704.
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  • Ecological and Social Variance and the Evolution of Increased Neocortical Size.R. A. Foley - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):702-703.
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  • Mosaic Evolution of the Neocortex.Dean Falk & Bruce Dudek - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):701-702.
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  • Language and Levels of Selection.Lee Alan Dugatkin & David Sloan Wilson - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):701-701.
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  • Do Grooming and Speech Really Serve Homologous Functions?Merlin Donald - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):700-701.
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  • Vocal Grooming: Man the Schmoozer.David Dean - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):699-700.
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  • Confounded Correlations, Again.Terrence W. Deacon - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):698-699.
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  • Grooming and Language as Cohesion Mechanisms: Choosing the Right Data.Marina Cords - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):697-698.
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  • A Gesture in the Right Direction?Michael C. Corballis - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):697-697.
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  • Do Larger Brains Mean Greater Intelligence?R. W. Byrne - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):696-697.
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