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  1. Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering. [REVIEW]Yew-Kwang Ng - 1995 - Biology and Philosophy 10 (3):255-285.
    Welfare biology is the study of living things and their environment with respect to their welfare. Despite difficulties of ascertaining and measuring welfare and relevancy to normative issues, welfare biology is a positive science. Evolutionary economics and population dynamics are used to help answer basic questions in welfare biology : Which species are affective sentients capable of welfare? Do they enjoy positive or negative welfare? Can their welfare be dramatically increased? Under plausible axioms, all conscious species are plastic and all (...)
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  • The Concept of Consciousness: The Personal Meaning.Thomas Natsoulas - 1991 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 21 (September):339-67.
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  • The Concept of Consciousness: The Personal Meaning.Thomas Natsoulas - 1991 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour (September) 339 (September):339-367.
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  • Theory of Mind in Non-Verbal Apes: Conceptual Issues and the Critical Experiments.Andrew Whiten - 2001 - In D. Walsh (ed.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press. pp. 199-223.
    It is now over twenty years since Premack and Woodruff posed the question, ‘Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?’—‘by which we meant’, explained Premack in a later reappraisal, ‘does the ape do what humans do: attribute states of mind to the other one, and use these states to predict and explain the behaviour of the other one? For example, does the ape wonder, while looking quizzically at another individual, What does he really want? What does he believe? What (...)
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