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  1. Experiential Knowledge in Clinical Medicine: Use and Justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Devora Shapiro - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (2):67-82.
    Within the evidence-based medicine construct, clinical expertise is acknowledged to be both derived from primary experience and necessary for optimal medical practice. Primary experience in medical practice, however, remains undervalued. Clinicians’ primary experience tends to be dismissed by EBM as unsystematic or anecdotal, a source of bias rather than knowledge, never serving as the “best” evidence to support a clinical decision. The position that clinical expertise is necessary but that primary experience is untrustworthy in clinical decision-making is epistemically incoherent. Here (...)
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  • The Triumph of the Darwinian Method.Frank N. Egerton - 1971 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 2 (3):281-286.
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  • Pierre Duhem and the Inconsistency Between Instrumentalism and Natural Classification.Sonia Maria Dion - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):12-19.
    To consider Pierre Duhem’s conception of natural classification as the aim of physical theory, along with his instrumentalist view on its nature, sets up an inconsistency in his philosophy of science which has not yet been solved. This paper argues that to solve it we have to take Duhem on his own terms and that a solution can only be found by interpreting his philosophy as an articulated system which necessarily involves the following connections: 1. The association of natural classification (...)
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  • Decolonial AI: Decolonial Theory as Sociotechnical Foresight in Artificial Intelligence.Shakir Mohamed, Marie-Therese Png & William Isaac - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-26.
    This paper explores the important role of critical science, and in particular of post-colonial and decolonial theories, in understanding and shaping the ongoing advances in artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence is viewed as amongst the technological advances that will reshape modern societies and their relations. While the design and deployment of systems that continually adapt holds the promise of far-reaching positive change, they simultaneously pose significant risks, especially to already vulnerable peoples. Values and power are central to this discussion. Decolonial theories (...)
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  • Temas em filosofia contemporânea II.Becker Arenhart Jonas Rafael, Conte Jaimir & Mortari Cezar Augusto - 2016 - Florianópolis, SC, Brasil: NEL/UFSC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina.
    Sumário: 1. El caso del método científico, Alberto Oliva; 2. Un capítulo de la prehistoria de las ciencias humanas: la defensa por Vico de la tópica, Jorge Alberto Molina; 3. La figura de lo cognoscible y los mundos, Pablo Vélez León; 4. Lebenswelt de Husserl y las neurociencias, Vanessa Fontana; 5. El uso estético del concepto de mundos posibles, Jairo Dias Carvalho; 6. Realismo normativo no naturalista y mundos morales imposibles, Alcino Eduardo Bonella; 7. En la lógica de pragmatismo, Hércules (...)
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  • Demystifying the Influential IS Legends of Positivism.Mikko Siponen & Aggeliki Tsohou - 2018 - Journal of the Association for Information Systems 19 (7):600-617.
    Positivism has been used to establish a standard that Information Systems research must meet to be scientific. According to such positivistic beliefs in IS, scientific research should: 1) be generalizable, 2) focus on stable independent variables, 3) have certain ontological assumptions, and 4) use statistical or quantitative methods rather than qualitative methods. We argue that logical positivist philosophers required none of these. On the contrary, logical positivist philosophers regarded philosophizing in general and ontological considerations in particular as nonsense. Moreover, the (...)
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  • Cost-Benefit Versus Expected Utility Acceptance Rules.Alex C. Michalos - 1970 - Theory and Decision 1 (1):61-88.
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  • Pondering the Imponderable: John Robison and Magnetic Theory in Britain.Robinson M. Yost - 1999 - Annals of Science 56 (2):143-174.
    Important shifts took place in the areas investigated by British experimental philosophers during the late eighteenth century. In particular, the phenomena of heat, light, electricity, and magnetism shifted from largely qualitative, non-mathematical subjects to increasingly quantitative, mathematically based subjects. Emphasizing the Scottish context of Edinburgh natural philosopher, John Robison, this paper traces developments in magnetic theory in Britain from the latter quarter of the eighteenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Robison is an important transitional figure who practiced (...)
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  • Always or Never: Two Approaches to Ceteris Paribus. [REVIEW]Toni Vogel Carey - 2012 - Erkenntnis 77 (3):317-333.
    The Scientific Revolution spawned not just one methodology, but two. We have emphasized Bacon's inductivism at the expense of Galileo's more abstract, sophisticated method of successive approximation, and so have failed to appreciate Galileo's contribution to the ceteris paribus problem in philosophy of science. My purpose here is to help redress this imbalance. I first briefly review the old unsolved problems, and then point out the Baconian basis of ceteris paribus, as this clause is conventionally understood, and its history from (...)
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  • New Philosophies of Science in the USA.Theodore Kisiel & Galen Johnson - 1974 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 5 (1):138-191.
    The following overview of the present situation and recent trends in the philosophy of science in the USA brings together bibliographical and institutional evidence to document the last stages of the supersession of logical positivism, the emergence of the historical school , its widespread influence upon other fields as well as within philosophy of science, and finally some of the reactions to it, many of which envision their endeavors as mediations between the historical school and the older logical approaches As (...)
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  • Kepler's Theory of Hypothesis and the 'Realist Dilemma'.Robert S. Westman - 1972 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 3 (3):233.
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  • Electricity, Knowledge, and the Nature of Progress in Priestley's Thought.John G. McEvoy - 1979 - British Journal for the History of Science 12 (1):1-30.
    The appearance of Priestley's electrical work as a brief and irrelevant prelude to his more substantial chemical enquiries may explain why it has been strangely overlooked by historians of science. It was only fairly recently that Sir Philip Hartog sought to rectify this situation with the affirmation that ‘Priestley's electrical work offers the key to Priestley's scientific mind’. Attacking traditional chemical historiography for tracing Priestley's opposition to Lavoisier's theory to a deficiency in his scientific sensibilities, Hartog insisted that Priestley's natural (...)
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  • Reviewing Herschel's Discourse.Richard Yeo - 1989 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 20 (4):541-552.
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  • The Popper—Carnap Controversy.J. G. McEvoy - 1976 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 7 (1):63-85.
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  • Method in History: For and Against.G. N. Cantor - 1976 - History of Science 14 (4):265-276.
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  • Cost-Benefit Versus Expected Utility Acceptance Rules.Alex C. Michalos - 1970 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1970 (1):375-402.
    A rule for the acceptance of scientific hypotheses called 'the principle of cost-benefit dominance' is shown to be more effective and efficient than the well-known principle of the maximization of expected utility. Harvey 's defense of his theory of the circulation of blood in animals is examined as a historical paradigm case of a successful defense of a scientific hypothesis and as an implicit application of the cost-benefit dominance rule advocated here. Finally, various concepts of 'dominance' are considered by means (...)
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  • Positivism, Whiggism, and the Chemical Revolution: A Study in the Historiography of Chemistry.John G. McEvoy - 1997 - History of Science 35 (107):1-33.
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  • How the Philosophy of Science Changed Religion at Nineteenth-Century Harvard.David K. Nartonis - 2008 - Zygon 43 (3):639-650.
    Nineteenth-century Harvard faculty and students looked to philosophical ideas about the proper and effective study of nature as the model of rationality to which their religion must conform. As these ideas changed, notions of rationality changed and so did Harvard religion.
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  • Scientific Method.Brian Hepburn & Hanne Andersen - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    1. Overview and organizing themes 2. Historical Review: Aristotle to Mill 3. Logic of method and critical responses 3.1 Logical constructionism and Operationalism 3.2. H-D as a logic of confirmation 3.3. Popper and falsificationism 3.4 Meta-methodology and the end of method 4. Statistical methods for hypothesis testing 5. Method in Practice 5.1 Creative and exploratory practices 5.2 Computer methods and the ‘third way’ of doing science 6. Discourse on scientific method 6.1 “The scientific method” in science education and as seen (...)
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