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  1. Cheating in Business: A Metaethical Perspective.Marian Eabrasu - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 162 (3):519-532.
    Although the managerial practice of cheating spans complex and heterogeneous situations, most business ethics scholars consider that the very idea of cheating is indefensible on moral grounds, and quickly dismiss it as wrongdoing. This paper proposes to fine-tune this conventional moral assessment by arguing that some forms of cheating can be justified—or at least excused. To do so, it starts with a value-free definition of cheating that covers a wide diversity of situations: “breaking the rules while deliberately leading or allowing (...)
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  • Alternative Negotiating Conditions and the Choice of Negotiation Tactics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. [REVIEW]Roger J. Volkema & Maria Tereza Leme Fleury - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 36 (4):381 - 398.
    The growth in international trade in recent years necessitates a better understanding of customs and expectations in cross-cultural negotiations. While several researchers have sought to examine and detail the similarities and differences between select countries, their data have generally been obtained under neutral or unspecified negotiating conditions. However, issue importance, opponent (prowess, ethical reputation), and context (location, confederate awareness, urgency) can play a significant role in the use of negotiating tactics. This paper describes a study comparing the perceptions of one (...)
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  • Feeling Competitiveness or Empathy Towards Negotiation Counterparts Mitigates Sex Differences in Lying.Jason R. Pierce & Leigh Thompson - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-17.
    Men typically express more willingness than women to perpetrate fraudulent acts like lying in negotiations. However, women express just as much willingness in some cases. We develop and test a theory to explain these mixed findings. Specifically, we hypothesize that situational cues that bring about competitive or empathic feelings mitigate sex differences in lying to negotiation counterparts. Results from four experiments confirm our hypotheses. Experiment 1 showed that men and women express equal willingness to lie when negotiating with counterparts toward (...)
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  • Confident and Cunning: Negotiator Self-Efficacy Promotes Deception in Negotiations.Joseph P. Gaspar & Maurice E. Schweitzer - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 171 (1):139-155.
    Self-confidence is associated with many positive outcomes, and training programs routinely seek to build participants’ self-efficacy. In this article, however, we consider whether self-confidence increases unethical behavior. In a series of studies, we explore the relationship between negotiator self-efficacy—an individual’s confidence in his or her negotiation ability—and the use of deception. We find that individuals high in negotiator self-efficacy are more likely to use deception than individuals low in negotiator self-efficacy. We also find that perceptions of the risk of deception (...)
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  • Ethically Questionable Negotiating: The Interactive Effects of Trust, Competitiveness, and Situation Favorability on Ethical Decision Making. [REVIEW]Filipe Sobral & Gazi Islam - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):281-296.
    This study explores the direct and interactive effects of individual differences in interpersonal trust and negotiation style on ethical decision-making processes across commonly faced negotiation situations. Individual differences influence basic ideas about legitimate negotiating behaviors, affect behavioral intentions directly, and interact with the favorability of negotiating situations, resulting in direct, indirect, and interactive effects on ethical decision-making processes. Using a sample of 298 participants in executive education workshops, the study analyzes the relationship between interpersonal trust, competitiveness, moral judgment, and behavioral (...)
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  • Emotional Intelligence and Deception: A Theoretical Model and Propositions.Joseph P. Gaspar, Redona Methasani & Maurice E. Schweitzer - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-18.
    Deception is pervasive in negotiations and organizations, and emotions are critical to using, detecting, and responding to deception. In this article, we introduce a theoretical model to explore the interplay between emotional intelligence and deception in negotiations. In our model, we propose that emotional intelligence influences the decision to use deception, the effectiveness of deception, the ability to detect deception, and the consequences of deception. We consider the emotional intelligence of both deceivers and targets, and we consider characteristics of negotiators, (...)
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  • How Ethically Would Americans and Chinese Negotiate? The Effect of Intra-Cultural Versus Inter-Cultural Negotiations.Yu Yang, David De Cremer & Chao Wang - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 145 (3):659-670.
    A growing body of research has started to examine how individuals from different countries may differ in their use of ethically questionable tactics during business negotiations. Whereas prior research focused on the main effect of the national culture or nationality of the negotiator, we add a new factor, which is the nationality of the counterpart. Looking at both these variables allows us to examine whether and how people may change their likelihood of using ethically questionable tactics in inter-cultural negotiations as (...)
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  • The Impact of Service Supplier’s Unethical Behavior to Buyer’s Satisfaction: An Empirical Study. [REVIEW]Ramazan Kaynak & Tuba Sert - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (2):219-226.
    In today’s marketing conditions, it becomes really vital for companies to establish an appropriate relationship with suppliers and salesperson based on ethical values in order to survive. Besides, ensuring an effective relationship between the parties would contribute to increase buyer satisfaction along with economic and social satisfaction. In this study, the direct effects of suppliers’ and salespersons’ unethical behaviors on buyer satisfaction, and the moderator effect of communication between buyer–supplier relationships are examined. The results of the study have revealed that (...)
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  • Using Social Identity Theory to Predict Managers' Emphases on Ethical and Legal Values in Judging Business Issues.John A. Pearce - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (3):497-514.
    The need to fill three gaps in ethics research in a business context sparked the current study. First, the distinction between the concepts of “ethical” and “legal” needs to be incorporated into theory building and empiricism. Second, a unifying theory is needed that can explain the variables that influence managers to emphasize ethics and legality in their judgments. Third, empirical evidence is needed to confirm the predictive power of the unifying theory, the discernable influence of personal and organizational variables, and (...)
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  • Attitudes Toward Ethically Questionable Negotiation Tactics: A Two-Country Study.Moshe Banai, Abraham Stefanidis, Ana Shetach & Mehmet Ferhat Özbek - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (4):669-685.
    Current research has identified five discrete US negotiation tactics, a traditional one considered to be ethical, and four considered to be ethically questionable. Scholars have independently used culture to explain how the endorsement of these five negotiation tactics varies across nations. They have also independently used interpersonal trust and ethics propensity to explain antecedents of the endorsement of those five negotiation tactics. This research combines all those variables into one model that investigates the influence of horizontal and vertical individualism–collectivism, ethical (...)
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  • Toward an Ethical Understanding of the Controversial Technology of Online Reverse Auctions.Mohamed Hédi Charki, Emmanuel Josserand & Nabila Boukef Charki - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (1):17-37.
    B2B online reverse auctions technology (ORAs) emerged as a popular tool for large buying firms in the late 1990s. However, its growing use has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in unethical behaviors to a point that it has been described as the technology that has triggered more ethical concerns in the e-commerce arena than in any other segment of activity. Our findings first indicate that the establishment of formal ethical criteria based on the restrictive interpretation of ethics as honesty (...)
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  • Fairness, Feelings, and Ethical Decision- Making: Consequences of Violating Community Standards of Fairness. [REVIEW]Maurice E. Schweitzer & Donald E. Gibson - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):287 - 301.
    In this article, we describe the influence of violations of community standards of fairness (Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler, 1986a) on subsequent ethical decision-making and emotions. Across two studies, we manipulated explanations for a common action, and we find that explanations that violate community standards of fairness (e.g., by taking advantage of an in crease in market power) lead to greater intentions to behave unethically than explanations that are consistent with community standards of fairness (e.g., by passing along a price increase). (...)
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  • Lying and Smiling: Informational and Emotional Deception in Negotiation.Ingrid Smithey Fulmer, Bruce Barry & D. Adam Long - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (4):691-709.
    This study investigated attitudes toward the use of deception in negotiation, with particular attention to the distinction between deception regarding the informational elements of the interaction (e.g., lying about or misrepresenting needs or preferences) and deception about emotional elements (e.g., misrepresenting one's emotional state). We examined how individuals judge the relative ethical appropriateness of these alternative forms of deception, and how these judgments relate to negotiator performance and long-run reputation. Individuals viewed emotionally misleading tactics as more ethically appropriate to use (...)
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  • Competitive Bluffing: An Examination of a Common Practice and its Relationship with Performance.Rebecca M. Guidice, G. Stoney Alder & Steven E. Phelan - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):535-553.
    Bluffing, a common and consequential form of competitive behavior, has been comparably ignored in the management literature, even though misleading one's rivals is suggested to be an advantageous skill in a multifaceted and highly competitive environment. To address this deficiency and advance scholarship on competitive dynamics, our study investigates the moral reasoning behind competitive bluffing and, using a simulated market-entry game, examines the performance effects of bluffing. Findings suggest that decision makers' views on the ethicality of bluffing competitors differ from (...)
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  • The Ethical Profile of Global Marketing Negotiators.Jamal A. Al-Khatib, Mohammed I. Al-Habib, Naima Bogari & Najah Salamah - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (2):172-186.
    As international trade and business opportunities grow globally, insight into trading partners’ strategies is essential. One of the major strategies that impact trading partners’ relationships is negotiation strategy employed by each partner. These strategies assume even greater importance when these strategies have ethical content. This study examines the effects of marketing executives’ preferred ethical ideologies, opportunism and Machiavellianism on their perceived appropriateness of unethical negotiation tactics. Utilizing a sample of 995 marketing executives from six countries, cluster analysis and multivariate analysis (...)
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  • Negotiation and Aristotle's Rhetoric: Truth Over Interests?Alexios Arvanitis & Antonis Karampatzos - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (6):845 - 860.
    Negotiation research primarily focuses on negotiators? interests in order to understand negotiation and offer advice about the prospective outcome. Win-win outcomes, i.e., outcomes that serve the interests of all negotiating parties, have been established and promoted as the ultimate goal for any negotiation situation. We offer a perspective that draws on Aristotle's philosophical program and discuss how the outcome is not defined by the parties? interests, but by the intersubjective validity of claims, which can essentially be treated as representative of (...)
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  • Fairness, Feelings, and Ethical Decision- Making: Consequences of Violating Community Standards of Fairness.Maurice E. Schweitzer & Donald E. Gibson - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):287-301.
    In this article, we describe the influence of violations of community standards of fairness on subsequent ethical decision-making and emotions. Across two studies, we manipulated explanations for a common action, and we find that explanations that violate community standards of fairness lead to greater intentions to behave unethically than explanations that are consistent with community standards of fairness. We find that perceptions of justifiability mediate this relationship. We also find that individuals derive significant psychological benefits from engaging in unethical behavior (...)
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  • Ethno‐Cultural Considerations in Negotiation: Pretense, Deception and Lies in the Greek Workplace.Abraham Stefanidis & Moshe Banai - 2014 - Business Ethics: A European Review 23 (2):197-217.
    A retrospect into ethos, this study examines the impact of individualism, collectivism, ethical idealism and interpersonal trust on negotiators' attitudes toward questionable negotiation tactics in Greece. A thousand survey questionnaires were administered to Greek employees, of which 327 usable responses were collected. Our findings empirically corroborated a classification of three groups of negotiation tactics, namely, pretense, deception and lies. Individualism–collectivism and ethical idealism were found to be related, and interpersonal trust was found to be unrelated, to attitudes toward questionable negotiation (...)
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  • Lying to Level the Playing Field: Why People May Dishonestly Help or Hurt Others to Create Equity. [REVIEW]Francesca Gino & Lamar Pierce - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (1):89 - 103.
    Unethical and dishonest behavior has increasingly attracted the attention of scholars from various disciplines. Recent work has begun to focus on a previous overlooked factor predicting dishonest behavior: the beneficiary or victim of dishonest acts. In two laboratory experiments, we manipulate the level of resources allocated to our participants (their "wealth") and investigate whether perceived inequity from wealth that is randomly or subjectively assigned leads individuals to cross ethical boundaries through helping or hurting others. The results show that dishonest behavior (...)
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  • Ethical Reasoning in Business‐to‐Business Negotiations: Evidence From Relationships in the Chemical Industry in Germany.Dirk C. Moosmayer, Thomas Niemand & Florian U. Siems - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (2):128-143.
    This article explores managers’ ethical reasoning for behaviors in price negotiations using evidence from 15 in-depth interviews conducted with sales and purchasing representatives in the chemical industry in Germany. Applying transaction cost economics, we find that negotiators in commoditized market-like exchanges either refer to deontological norms such as not to lie, or they neglect a role for ethics, arguing that distributive negotiation is per se opportunistic. In contrast, exchanges of products with higher asset specificity lead to stronger informational integration which (...)
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  • Effects of Implicit Negotiation Beliefs and Moral Disengagement on Negotiator Attitudes and Deceptive Behavior.Kevin Tasa & Chris M. Bell - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (1):169-183.
    In three studies, we examined the relationship between implicit negotiation beliefs, moral disengagement, and a negotiator’s ethical attitudes and behavior. Study 1 found correlations between an entity theory that negotiation skills are fixed rather than malleable, moral disengagement, and appropriateness of marginally ethical negotiation tactics. Mediation analysis supported a model in which moral disengagement facilitated the relationship between entity theory and support for unethical tactics. Study 2 provided additional support for the mediation model in a sample of MBA students, whereby (...)
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  • The SINS in Business Negotiations: Explore the Cross-Cultural Differences in Business Ethics Between Canada and China.Zhenzhong Ma - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (S1):123 - 135.
    Ethical dilemmas are inescapable components of business negotiations. It is thus important for negotiators to understand the differences in what is ethically appropriate and what is not. This study explores the cross-cultural differences in business ethics between Canada and China by examining the perceived appropriateness of five categories of ethically questionable strategies often used in business negotiations. The results show that the Chinese are more likely to consider it appropriate to use ethically inappropriate negotiation strategies, but the impact of cultural (...)
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