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The development of mathematical logic from Russell to Tarski, 1900-1935

In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The development of modern logic. New York: Oxford University Press (2011)

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  1. Logic in mathematics and computer science.Richard Zach - forthcoming - In Filippo Ferrari, Elke Brendel, Massimiliano Carrara, Ole Hjortland, Gil Sagi, Gila Sher & Florian Steinberger (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Logic. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Logic has pride of place in mathematics and its 20th century offshoot, computer science. Modern symbolic logic was developed, in part, as a way to provide a formal framework for mathematics: Frege, Peano, Whitehead and Russell, as well as Hilbert developed systems of logic to formalize mathematics. These systems were meant to serve either as themselves foundational, or at least as formal analogs of mathematical reasoning amenable to mathematical study, e.g., in Hilbert’s consistency program. Similar efforts continue, but have been (...)
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  • The Subject Matter of Logic: Explaining what logic is about.Elizabeth Olsen - 2021 - Dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington
    Logicians disagree about how validity—the very heart of logic—should be understood. Many different formal systems have been born due to this disagreement. This thesis examines how teachers explain the subject matter of logic to students in introductory logic textbooks, and demonstrates the different explanations teachers use. These differences help explain why logicians have different intuitions about validity.
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  • Frege and the origins of model theory in nineteenth century geometry.Günther Eder - 2019 - Synthese 198 (6):5547-5575.
    The aim of this article is to contribute to a better understanding of Frege’s views on semantics and metatheory by looking at his take on several themes in nineteenth century geometry that were significant for the development of modern model-theoretic semantics. I will focus on three issues in which a central semantic idea, the idea of reinterpreting non-logical terms, gradually came to play a substantial role: the introduction of elements at infinity in projective geometry; the study of transfer principles, especially (...)
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  • Structure and Categoricity: Determinacy of Reference and Truth Value in the Philosophy of Mathematics.Tim Button & Sean Walsh - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (3):283-307.
    This article surveys recent literature by Parsons, McGee, Shapiro and others on the significance of categoricity arguments in the philosophy of mathematics. After discussing whether categoricity arguments are sufficient to secure reference to mathematical structures up to isomorphism, we assess what exactly is achieved by recent ‘internal’ renditions of the famous categoricity arguments for arithmetic and set theory.
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  • Carnap’s early metatheory: scope and limits.Georg Schiemer, Richard Zach & Erich Reck - 2017 - Synthese 194 (1):33-65.
    In Untersuchungen zur allgemeinen Axiomatik and Abriss der Logistik, Carnap attempted to formulate the metatheory of axiomatic theories within a single, fully interpreted type-theoretic framework and to investigate a number of meta-logical notions in it, such as those of model, consequence, consistency, completeness, and decidability. These attempts were largely unsuccessful, also in his own considered judgment. A detailed assessment of Carnap’s attempt shows, nevertheless, that his approach is much less confused and hopeless than it has often been made out to (...)
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  • Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics.Michèle Friend - 2013 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    The pluralist sheds the more traditional ideas of truth and ontology. This is dangerous, because it threatens instability of the theory. To lend stability to his philosophy, the pluralist trades truth and ontology for rigour and other ‘fixtures’. Fixtures are the steady goal posts. They are the parts of a theory that stay fixed across a pair of theories, and allow us to make translations and comparisons. They can ultimately be moved, but we tend to keep them fixed temporarily. Apart (...)
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  • Peano’s structuralism and the birth of formal languages.Joan Bertran-San-Millán - 2022 - Synthese 200 (4):1-34.
    Recent historical studies have investigated the first proponents of methodological structuralism in late nineteenth-century mathematics. In this paper, I shall attempt to answer the question of whether Peano can be counted amongst the early structuralists. I shall focus on Peano’s understanding of the primitive notions and axioms of geometry and arithmetic. First, I shall argue that the undefinability of the primitive notions of geometry and arithmetic led Peano to the study of the relational features of the systems of objects that (...)
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  • Lingua characterica and calculus ratiocinator: The Leibnizian background of the Frege-Schröder polemic.Joan Bertran-San Millán - 2021 - Review of Symbolic Logic 14 (2):411-446.
    After the publication of Begriffsschrift, a conflict erupted between Frege and Schröder regarding their respective logical systems which emerged around the Leibnizian notions of lingua characterica and calculus ratiocinator. Both of them claimed their own logic to be a better realisation of Leibniz’s ideal language and considered the rival system a mere calculus ratiocinator. Inspired by this polemic, van Heijenoort (1967b) distinguished two conceptions of logic—logic as language and logic as calculus—and presented them as opposing views, but did not explain (...)
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  • Logic in the 1930s: type theory and model theory.Georg Schiemer & Erich H. Reck - 2013 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 19 (4):433-472.
    In historical discussions of twentieth-century logic, it is typically assumed that model theory emerged within the tradition that adopted first-order logic as the standard framework. Work within the type-theoretic tradition, in the style of Principia Mathematica, tends to be downplayed or ignored in this connection. Indeed, the shift from type theory to first-order logic is sometimes seen as involving a radical break that first made possible the rise of modern model theory. While comparing several early attempts to develop the semantics (...)
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  • On Rereading van Heijenoort’s Selected Essays.Solomon Feferman - 2012 - Logica Universalis 6 (3):535-552.
    This is a critical reexamination of several pieces in van Heijenoort’s Selected Essays that are directly or indirectly concerned with the philosophy of logic or the relation of logic to natural language. Among the topics discussed are absolutism and relativism in logic, mass terms, the idea of a rational dictionary, and sense and identity of sense in Frege.
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  • Projective duality and the rise of modern logic.Günther Eder - 2021 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 27 (4):351-384.
    The symmetries between points and lines in planar projective geometry and between points and planes in solid projective geometry are striking features of these geometries that were extensively discussed during the nineteenth century under the labels “duality” or “reciprocity.” The aims of this article are, first, to provide a systematic analysis of duality from a modern point of view, and, second, based on this, to give a historical overview of how discussions about duality evolved during the nineteenth century. Specifically, we (...)
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  • Mario Pieri’s View of the Symbiotic Relationship between the Foundations and the Teaching of Elementary Geometry in the Context of the Early Twentieth Century Proposals for Pedagogical Reform.Elena Anne Corie Marchisotto & Ana Millán Gasca - 2021 - Philosophia Scientiae 25:157-183.
    In this paper, we discuss a proposal for reform in the teaching of Euclidean geometry that reveals the symbiotic relationship between axiomatics and pedagogy. We examine the role of intuition in this kind of reform, as expressed by Mario Pieri, a prominent member of the Schools of Peano and Segre at the University of Turin. We are well aware of the centuries of attention paid to the notion of intuition by mathematicians, mathematics educators, philosophers, psychologists, historians, and others. To set (...)
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  • Frege, Peano and the Interplay between Logic and Mathematics.Joan Bertran-San Millán - 2021 - Philosophia Scientiae 25 (1):15-34.
    In contemporary historical studies, Peano is usually included in the logical tradition pioneered by Frege. In this paper, I shall first demonstrate that Frege and Peano independently developed a similar way of using logic for the rigorous expression and proof of mathematical laws. However, I shall then suggest that Peano also used his mathematical logic in such a way that anticipated a formalisation of mathematical theories which was incompatible with Frege’s conception of logic.
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  • Peirce and diagrams: two contributors to an actual discussion review each other.Frederik Stjernfelt & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2015 - Synthese 192 (4):1073-1088.
    The following two review papers have a common origin. Pietarinen’s book Signs of Logic and Stjernfelt’s book Diagrammatology were both published in the same Synthese Library Series being published by Springer. The two books also share the common topic of diagrammatic reasoning in Charles Peirce’s work. Beginning in a conference Applying Peirce held in Helsinki in conjunction with the World Congress of Semiotics in June 2007, two authors have commented upon these books under the headline of Synthese Library Book Session (...)
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  • The role of universal language in the early work of Carnap and Tarski.Iris Loeb - 2017 - Synthese 194 (1):15-31.
    It is often argued that by assuming the existence of a universal language, one prohibits oneself from conducting semantical investigations. It could thus be thought that Tarski’s stance towards a universal language in his fruitful Wahrheitsbegriff differs essentially from Carnap’s in the latter’s less successful Untersuchungen zur allgemeinen Axiomatik. Yet this is not the case. Rather, these two works differ in whether or not the studied fragments of the universal language are languages themselves, i.e., whether or not they are closed (...)
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  • The Crisis in the Foundations of Mathematics.J. Ferreiros - 2008 - In T. Gowers (ed.), Princeton Companion to Mathematics. Princeton University Press.
    A general introduction to the celebrated foundational crisis, discussing how the characteristic traits of modern mathematics (acceptance of the notion of an “arbitrary” function proposed by Dirichlet; wholehearted acceptance of infinite sets and the higher infinite; a preference “to put thoughts in the place of calculations” and to concentrate on “structures” characterized axiomatically; a reliance on “purely existential” methods of proof) provoked extensive polemics and alternative approaches. Going beyond exclusive concentration on the paradoxes, it also discusses the role of the (...)
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  • Paradoxes and contemporary logic.Andrea Cantini - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Turing machines.David Barker-Plummer - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Frege, Peano and the Interplay between Logic and Mathematics.Joan Bertran-San Millán - 2021 - Philosophia Scientiae 25:15-34.
    In contemporary historical studies, Peano is usually included in the logical tradition pioneered by Frege. In this paper, I shall first demonstrate that Frege and Peano independently developed a similar way of using logic for the rigorous expression and proof of mathematical laws. However, I shall then suggest that Peano also used his mathematical logic in such a way that anticipated a formalisation of mathematical theories which was incompatible with Frege’s conception of logic.
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  • Logic in the 1930s: Type Theory and Model Theory.Georg Schiemer & Erich H. Reck - 2013 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 19 (4):433-472.
    In historical discussions of twentieth-century logic, it is typically assumed that model theory emerged within the tradition that adopted first-order logic as the standard framework. Work within the type-theoretic tradition, in the style ofPrincipia Mathematica, tends to be downplayed or ignored in this connection. Indeed, the shift from type theory to first-order logic is sometimes seen as involving a radical break that first made possible the rise of modern model theory. While comparing several early attempts to develop the semantics of (...)
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  • A recently recurring mistake over Russell's theory of descriptions.Lloyd Humberstone - forthcoming - Analytic Philosophy.
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  • The Axiom of Choice and the Road Paved by Sierpiński.Valérie Lynn Therrien - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (2):504-523.
    From 1908 to 1916, articles supporting the axiom of choice were scant. The situation changed in 1916, when Wacław Sierpiński published a series of articles reviving the debate. The posterity of the axiom of choice as we know it would be unimaginable without Sierpiński’s efforts.
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  • Beppo Levi’s Analysis of the Paradoxes.Riccardo Bruni - 2013 - Logica Universalis 7 (2):211-231.
    This paper presents and comments the content of a note by Beppo Levi on logical paradoxes. Though the existence of this contribution is known, very little analysis of it is available in the literature. I put the emphasis on Levi’s usage of “elementation procedures” for solving the set-theoretical paradoxes, which is the most original part of Levi’s approach to the topic.
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  • Essay Review of Three Books on Frank Ramsey†.Paolo Mancosu - 2021 - Philosophia Mathematica 29 (1):110-150.
    No chance of seeing her for another fortnight and it is 11 days since I saw her. Went solitary walk felt miserable but to some extent staved it off by reflecting on |$\langle$|Continuum Problem|$\rangle$|1The occasion for this review article on the life and accomplishments of Frank Ramsey is the publication in the last eight years of three important books: a biography of Frank Ramsey by his sister, Margaret Paul, a book by Steven Methven on aspects of Ramsey’s philosophy, and the (...)
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  • Alfred Tarski: philosophy of language and logic.Douglas Patterson - 2012 - New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This study looks to the work of Tarski's mentors Stanislaw Lesniewski and Tadeusz Kotarbinski, and reconsiders all of the major issues in Tarski scholarship in light of the conception of Intuitionistic Formalism developed: semantics, truth, paradox, logical consequence.
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  • Kurt gödel.Juliette Kennedy - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Fixed- versus Variable-domain Interpretations of Tarski’s Account of Logical Consequence.Paolo Mancosu - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (9):745-759.
    In this article I describe and evaluate the debate that surrounds the proper interpretation of Tarski’s account of logical consequence given in his classic 1936 article ‘On the concept of logical consequence’. In the late 1980s Etchemendy argued that the familiar model theoretic account of logical consequence is not to be found in Tarski’s original article. Whereas the contemporary account of logical consequence is a variable‐domain conception – in that it calls for a reinterpretation of the domain of variation of (...)
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  • The algebra of logic tradition.Stanley Burris - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Von neumann’s consistency proof.Luca Bellotti - 2016 - Review of Symbolic Logic 9 (3):429-455.
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