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  1. Returning Individual Research Results from Digital Phenotyping in Psychiatry.Francis X. Shen, Matthew L. Baum, Nicole Martinez-Martin, Adam S. Miner, Melissa Abraham, Catherine A. Brownstein, Nathan Cortez, Barbara J. Evans, Laura T. Germine, David C. Glahn, Christine Grady, Ingrid A. Holm, Elisa A. Hurley, Sara Kimble, Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz, Kimberlyn Leary, Mason Marks, Patrick J. Monette, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, P. Pearl O’Rourke, Scott L. Rauch, Carmel Shachar, Srijan Sen, Ipsit Vahia, Jason L. Vassy, Justin T. Baker, Barbara E. Bierer & Benjamin C. Silverman - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (2):69-90.
    Psychiatry is rapidly adopting digital phenotyping and artificial intelligence/machine learning tools to study mental illness based on tracking participants’ locations, online activity, phone and text message usage, heart rate, sleep, physical activity, and more. Existing ethical frameworks for return of individual research results (IRRs) are inadequate to guide researchers for when, if, and how to return this unprecedented number of potentially sensitive results about each participant’s real-world behavior. To address this gap, we convened an interdisciplinary expert working group, supported by (...)
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  • Mobile health ethics and the expanding role of autonomy.Bettina Schmietow & Georg Marckmann - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (4):623-630.
    Mhealth technology is mushrooming world-wide and, in a variety of forms, reaches increasing numbers of users in ever-widening contexts and virtually independent from standard medical evidence assessment. Yet, debate on the broader societal impact including in particular mapping and classification of ethical issues raised has been limited. This article, as part of an ongoing empirically informed ethical research project, provides an overview of ethical issues of mhealth applications with a specific focus on implications on autonomy as a key notion in (...)
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  • Out of Control – Privacy Calculus and the Effect of Perceived Control and Moral Considerations on the Usage of IoT Healthcare Devices.Evgenia Princi & Nicole C. Krämer - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Viewing CAI as a Tool Within the Mental Health Care System.Nicole Martinez-Martin - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (5):57-59.
    Sedlakova and Trachsel (2023) advocate for a holistic approach to assessing ethical application of conversational artificial intelligence (CAI) in mental health therapy. They first describe CAI as...
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  • The Digital Phenotype: a Philosophical and Ethical Exploration.Michele Loi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (1):155-171.
    The concept of the digital phenotype has been used to refer to digital data prognostic or diagnostic of disease conditions. Medical conditions may be inferred from the time pattern in an insomniac’s tweets, the Facebook posts of a depressed individual, or the web searches of a hypochondriac. This paper conceptualizes digital data as an extended phenotype of humans, that is as digital information produced by humans and affecting human behavior and culture. It argues that there are ethical obligations to persons (...)
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  • Cross-Sectoral Big Data: The Application of an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.Graeme T. Laurie - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):327-339.
    Discussion of uses of biomedical data often proceeds on the assumption that the data are generated and shared solely or largely within the health sector. However, this assumption must be challenged because increasingly large amounts of health and well-being data are being gathered and deployed in cross-sectoral contexts such as social media and through the internet of things and wearable devices. Cross-sectoral sharing of data thus refers to the generation, use and linkage of biomedical data beyond the health sector. This (...)
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  • Ethical considerations in design and implementation of home-based smart care for dementia.Christine Hine, Ramin Nilforooshan & Payam Barnaghi - 2022 - Nursing Ethics 29 (4):1035-1046.
    It has now become a realistic prospect for smart care to be provided at home for those living with long-term conditions such as dementia. In the contemporary smart care scenario, homes are fitted with an array of sensors for remote monitoring providing data that feed into intelligent systems developed to highlight concerning patterns of behaviour or physiological measurements and to alert healthcare professionals to the need for action. This paper explores some ethical issues that may arise within such smart care (...)
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  • The Moral Consideration of Artificial Entities: A Literature Review.Jamie Harris & Jacy Reese Anthis - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-95.
    Ethicists, policy-makers, and the general public have questioned whether artificial entities such as robots warrant rights or other forms of moral consideration. There is little synthesis of the research on this topic so far. We identify 294 relevant research or discussion items in our literature review of this topic. There is widespread agreement among scholars that some artificial entities could warrant moral consideration in the future, if not also the present. The reasoning varies, such as concern for the effects on (...)
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  • The concept of social dignity as a yardstick to delimit ethical use of robotic assistance in the care of older persons.Nadine Andrea Felber, Félix Pageau, Athena McLean & Tenzin Wangmo - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):99-110.
    With robots being introduced into caregiving, particularly for older persons, various ethical concerns are raised. Among them is the fear of replacing human caregiving. While ethical concepts like well-being, autonomy, and capabilities are often used to discuss these concerns, this paper brings forth the concept of social dignity to further develop guidelines concerning the use of robots in caregiving. By social dignity, we mean that a person’s perceived dignity changes in response to certain interactions and experiences with other persons. In (...)
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  • Epistemic Rights and Responsibilities of Digital Simulacra for Biomedicine.Mildred K. Cho & Nicole Martinez-Martin - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (9):43-54.
    Big data and artificial intelligence (“AI”) promise to transform virtually all aspects of biomedical research and health care (Matheny et al. 2019), through facilitation of drug development, diagno...
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  • A Tale of Two Deficits: Causality and Care in Medical AI.Melvin Chen - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):245-267.
    In this paper, two central questions will be addressed: ought we to implement medical AI technology in the medical domain? If yes, how ought we to implement this technology? I will critically engage with three options that exist with respect to these central questions: the Neo-Luddite option, the Assistive option, and the Substitutive option. I will first address key objections on behalf of the Neo-Luddite option: the Objection from Bias, the Objection from Artificial Autonomy, the Objection from Status Quo, and (...)
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  • The ethics of digital well-being: a thematic review.Christopher Burr, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2313–2343.
    This article presents the first thematic review of the literature on the ethical issues concerning digital well-being. The term ‘digital well-being’ is used to refer to the impact of digital technologies on what it means to live a life that is good for a human being. The review explores the existing literature on the ethics of digital well-being, with the goal of mapping the current debate and identifying open questions for future research. The review identifies major issues related to several (...)
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  • The ethics of digital well-being: a thematic review.Christopher Burr, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2313–⁠2343.
    This article presents the first thematic review of the literature on the ethical issues concerning digital well-being. The term ‘digital well-being’ is used to refer to the impact of digital technologies on what it means to live a life that isgood fora human being. The review explores the existing literature on the ethics of digital well-being, with the goal of mapping the current debate and identifying open questions for future research. The review identifies major issues related to several key social (...)
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  • State of the Art on Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Linked to Audio- and Video-Based AAL Solutions.Alin Ake-Kob, Aurelija Blazeviciene, Liane Colonna, Anto Cartolovni, Carina Dantas, Anton Fedosov, Francisco Florez-Revuelta, Eduard Fosch-Villaronga, Zhicheng He, Andrzej Klimczuk, Maksymilian Kuźmicz, Adrienn Lukacs, Christoph Lutz, Renata Mekovec, Cristina Miguel, Emilio Mordini, Zada Pajalic, Barbara Krystyna Pierscionek, Maria Jose Santofimia Romero, Albert AliSalah, Andrzej Sobecki, Agusti Solanas & Aurelia Tamo-Larrieux - 2021 - Alicante: University of Alicante.
    Ambient assisted living technologies are increasingly presented and sold as essential smart additions to daily life and home environments that will radically transform the healthcare and wellness markets of the future. An ethical approach and a thorough understanding of all ethics in surveillance/monitoring architectures are therefore pressing. AAL poses many ethical challenges raising questions that will affect immediate acceptance and long-term usage. Furthermore, ethical issues emerge from social inequalities and their potential exacerbation by AAL, accentuating the existing access gap between (...)
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