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  1. Visual Indexes, Preconceptual Objects, and Situated Vision.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2001 - Cognition 80 (1-2):127-158.
    This paper argues that a theory of situated vision, suited for the dual purposes of object recognition and the control of action, will have to provide something more than a system that constructs a conceptual representation from visual stimuli: it will also need to provide a special kind of direct (preconceptual, unmediated) connection between elements of a visual representation and certain elements in the world. Like natural language demonstratives (such as `this' or `that') this direct connection allows entities to be (...)
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  • Mental Imagery: In Search of a Theory.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):157-182.
    It is generally accepted that there is something special about reasoning by using mental images. The question of how it is special, however, has never been satisfactorily spelled out, despite more than thirty years of research in the post-behaviorist tradition. This article considers some of the general motivation for the assumption that entertaining mental images involves inspecting a picture-like object. It sets out a distinction between phenomena attributable to the nature of mind to what is called the cognitive architecture, and (...)
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  • Change Detection.Ronald A. Rensink - 2002 - Annual Review of Psychology 53 (1):245-277.
    Five aspects of visual change detection are reviewed. The first concerns the concept of change itself, in particular the ways it differs from the related notions of motion and difference. The second involves the various methodological approaches that have been developed to study change detection; it is shown that under a variety of conditions observers are often unable to see large changes directly in their field of view. Next, it is argued that this “change blindness” indicates that focused attention is (...)
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  • Limits to the Usability of Iconic Memory.Ronald A. Rensink - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Human vision briefly retains a trace of a stimulus after it disappears. This trace—iconic memory—is often believed to be a surrogate for the original stimulus, a representational structure that can be used as if the original stimulus were still present. To investigate its nature, a flicker-search paradigm was developed that relied upon a full scan (rather than partial report) of its contents. Results show that for visual search it can indeed act as a surrogate, with little cost for alternating between (...)
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  • To Have Seen or Not to Have Seen: A Look at Rensink, O’Regan, and Clark (1997).Ronald A. Rensink - 2018 - Perspectives on Psychological Science 13 (2):230– 235.
    Rensink, O’Regan, and Clark (1997) drew attention to the phenomenon of change blindness, in which even large changes can be difficult to notice if made during the appearance of motion transients elsewhere in the image. This article provides a sketch of the events that inspired that article as well as its subsequent impact on psychological science and on society at large.
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  • Rapid Resumption of Interrupted Visual Search: New Insights on the Interaction Between Memory and Vision.Alejandro Lleras, Ronald A. Rensink & James T. Enns - 2005 - Psychological Science 16 (9):684-688.
    A modified visual search task demonstrates that humans are very good at resuming a search after it has been momentarily interrupted. This is shown by exceptionally rapid response time to a display that reappears after a brief interruption, even when an entirely different visual display is seen during the interruption and two different visual searches are performed simultaneously. This rapid resumption depends on the stability of the visual scene and is not due to display or response anticipations. These results are (...)
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  • Facial Attention and Spacetime Fragments.T. N. Davies & D. D. Hoffman - 2003 - Axiomathes 13 (3-4):303-327.
    Inverting a face impairs perception of its features and recognition of its identity. Whether faces are special in this regard is a current topic of research and debate. Kanizsa studied the role of facial features and environmental context in perceiving the emotion and identity of upright and inverted faces. He found that observers are biased to interpret faces in a retinal coordinate frame, and that this bias is readily overruled by increased realism of facial features, but not easily overruled by (...)
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  • When Good Observers Go Bad: Change Blindness, Inattentional Blindness, and Visual Experience.Ronald A. Rensink - 2000 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 6 (9).
    Several studies (e.g., Becklen & Cervone, 1983; Mack & Rock, 1998; Neisser & Becklen, 1975) have found that observers attending to a particular object or event often fail to report the presence of unexpected items. This has been interpreted as inattentional blindness (IB), a failure to see unattended items (Mack & Rock, 1998). Meanwhile, other studies (e.g., Pashler, 1988; Phillips, 1974; Rensink et al., 1997; Simons, 1996) have found that observers often fail to report the presence of large changes in (...)
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  • The Dynamic Representation of Scenes.Ronald A. Rensink - 2000 - Visual Cognition 7 (1/2/3):17-42.
    One of the more powerful impressions created by vision is that of a coherent, richly-detailed world where everything is present simultaneously. Indeed, this impression is so compelling that we tend to ascribe these properties not only to the external world, but to our internal representations as well. But results from several recent experiments argue against this latter ascription. For example, changes in images of real-world scenes often go unnoticed when made during a saccade, flicker, blink, or movie cut. This "change (...)
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  • On the Applications of Change Blindness.Ronald A. Rensink - 2008 - Psychologia 51:100-106.
    An overview is presented of the ways that change blindness has been applied to the study of various issues in perception and cognition. Topics include mechanisms of change perception, allocation of attention, nonconscious perception, and cognitive beliefs. Recent work using change blindness to investigate these topics is surveyed, along with a brief discussion of some of the ways that these approaches may further develop over the next few years.
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  • Seeing Seeing.Ronald A. Rensink - 2010 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 16 (1):68-78.
    This paper discusses several key issues concerning consciousness and human vision. A brief overview is presented of recent developments in this area, including issues that have been resolved and issues that remain unsettled. Based on this, three Hilbert questions are proposed. These involve three related sets of issues: the kinds of visual experience that exist, the kinds of visual attention that exist, and the ways that these relate to each other.
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  • Seeing, Sensing, and Scrutinizing.Ronald A. Rensink - 2000 - Vision Research 40:1469-1487.
    Large changes in a scene often become difficult to notice if made during an eye movement, image flicker, movie cut, or other such disturbance. It is argued here that this _change blindness_ can serve as a useful tool to explore various aspects of vision. This argument centers around the proposal that focused attention is needed for the explicit perception of change. Given this, the study of change perception can provide a useful way to determine the nature of visual attention, and (...)
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  • Change Blindness: Implications for the Nature of Visual Attention.Ronald A. Rensink - 2001 - In L. Harris & M. Jenkin (eds.), Vision and Attention. New York: Academic Press. pp. 16-20.
    In the not-too-distant past, vision was often said to involve three levels of processing: a low level concerned with descriptions of the geometric and photometric properties of the image, a high level concerned with abstract knowledge of the physical and semantic properties of the world, and a middle level concerned with anything not handled by the other two. The negative definition of mid-level vision contained in this description reflected a rather large gap in our understanding of visual processing: How could (...)
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  • Mapping Visual Attention with Change Blindness: New Directions for a New Method.Peter U. Tse - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (2):241.
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  • Evidence for Preserved Representations in Change Blindness.Daniel J. Simons, Christopher Chabris & Tatiana Schnur - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (1):78-97.
    People often fail to detect large changes to scenes, provided that the changes occur during a visual disruption. This phenomenon, known as ''change blindness,'' occurs both in the laboratory and in real-world situations in which changes occur unexpectedly. The pervasiveness of the inability to detect changes is consistent with the theoretical notion that we internally represent relatively little information from our visual world from one glance at a scene to the next. However, evidence for change blindness does not necessarily imply (...)
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  • Perception, Representation and the World: The FINST That Binds.Zenon Pylyshyn - unknown
    I recently discovered that work I was doing in the laboratory and in theoretical writings was implicitly taking a position on a set of questions that philosophers had been worrying about for much of the past 30 or more years. My clandestine involvement in philosophical issues began when a computer science colleague and I were trying to build a model of geometrical reasoning that would draw a diagram and notice things in the diagram as it drew it (Pylyshyn, Elcock, Marmor, (...)
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  • Binding in Short-Term Visual Memory.Mary E. Wheeler & Anne M. Treisman - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 131 (1):48-64.
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  • Consciousness and Perceptual Attention: A Methodological Argument.Massimo Grassia - 2004 - Essays in Philosophy 5 (1):1-23.
    Our perception of external features comprises, among others, functional and phenomenological levels. At the functional level, the perceiver’s mind processes external features according to its own causal- functional organization. At the phenomenological level, the perceiver has consciousness of external features. The question of this paper is: How do the functional and the phenomenological levels of perception relate to each other? The answer I propose is that functional states of specifically perceptual attention constitute the necessary basis for the arising of consciousness (...)
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  • Scene Perception: What We Can Learn From Visual Integration and Change Detection.Daniel J. Simons, Steve Mitroff & Steve Franconeri - 2003 - In Michael L. Peterson & G. Rhodes (eds.), Perception of Faces, Objects, and Scenes: Analytic and Holistic Processes (335-355). Oxford University Press.
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  • Visual Indexes and Nonconceptual Reference.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - manuscript
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  • Visual Worlds: Construction or Reconstruction?Todd R. Davies, Donald D. Hoffman & Agustin M. G. Rodriguez - 2002 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (5-6):72-87.
    Psychophysical studies of change blindness indicate that, at any instant, human observers are aware of detail in few parts of the visual field. Such results suggest, to some theorists, that human vision reconstructs only a few portions of the visual scene and that, to bridge the resulting representational gaps, it often lets physical objects serve as their own short-term memory. We propose that human vision reconstructs no portion of the visual scene, and that it never lets physical objects serve as (...)
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  • Individual Differences in Change Blindness.Katharina Verena Bergmann - unknown
    The present work shows the existence of systematic individual differences in change blindness. It can be concluded that the sensitivity for changes is a trait. That is, persons differ in their ability to detect changes, independent from the situation or the measurement method. Moreover, there are two explanations for individual differences in change blindness: a) capacity differences in visual selective attention that may be influenced by top-down activated attention helping to focus attention onto relevant stimuli b) differences in working memory (...)
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  • Limitations of Human Visual Working Memory.Maria-Barbara Wesenick - unknown
    The present empirical study investigates limitations of human visual working memory. The experiments of the present work involve the experimental paradigm of change detection using simple geometrical objects in the form of rectangles of different colour, length, and orientation. It can be shown, that a limited performance in the temporary storage of visual information has multiple sources. Limitations of VWM can be attributed to a limited capacity or a limited duration, but also to limitations in retrieval, which so far has (...)
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  • Infants Chunk Object Arrays Into Sets of Individuals.Lisa Feigenson & Justin Halberda - 2004 - Cognition 91 (2):173-190.
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  • Anger Superiority Effect for Change Detection and Change Blindness.Pessi Lyyra, Jari K. Hietanen & Piia Astikainen - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 30:1-12.
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  • The Siren Song of Implicit Change Detection.Stephen R. Mitroff, Daniel J. Simons & Steven Franconeri - 2002 - Journal Of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception And Performance 28 (4):798-815.
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  • Explicit Mechanisms Do Not Account for Implicit Localization and Identification of Change: An Empirical Reply to Mitroff Et Al (2000).Diego Fernandez-Duque & Ian Thornton - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (5).
    Several recent findings support the notion that changes in the environment can be implicitly represented by the visual system. S. R. Mitroff, D. J. Simons, and S. L. Franconeri (2002) challenged this view and proposed alternative interpretations based on explicit strategies. Across 4 experiments, the current study finds no empirical support for such alternative proposals. Experiment 1 shows that subjects do not rely on unchanged items when locating an unaware change. Experiments 2 and 3 show that unaware changes affect performance (...)
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  • Differential Effect of Distractor Timing on Localizing Versus Identifying Visual Changes.Katsumi Watanabe - 2003 - Cognition 88 (2):243-257.
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  • Converging Evidence for the Detection of Change Without Awareness.Ian Thornton & Diego Fernandez-Duque - 2002 - Progress in Brain Research.
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  • Determinants of Attentive Blank Stares. An EFRP Study.Agnieszka Fudali-Czyż, Piotr Francuz & Paweł Augustynowicz - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 29:1-9.
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  • Optimistic Metacognitive Judgments Predict Poor Performance in Relatively Complex Visual Tasks.Daniel T. Levin, Gautam Biswas, Joeseph S. Lappin, Marian Rushdy & Adriane E. Seiffert - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 74:102781.
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  • Changes Are Not Localized Before They Are Explicitly Detected.Stephen R. Mitroff & Daniel J. Simons - 2000 - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 41 (4).
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  • An Implicit Measure of Undetected Change.Ian Thornton & Diego Fernandez-Duque - 2000 - Spatial Vision 14 (1):21-44.
    b>—Several paradigms (e.g. change blindness, inattentional blindness, transsaccadic integra- tion) indicate that observers are often very poor at reporting changes to their visual environment. Such evidence has been used to suggest that the spatio-temporal coherence needed to represent change can only occur in the presence of focused attention. However, those studies almost always rely on explicit reports. It remains a possibility that the visual system can implicitly detect change, but that in the absence of focused attention, the change does not (...)
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  • A Detection Theory Account of Change Detection.Patrick Wilken & Wei Ji Ma - 2004 - Journal of Vision 4 (12):1120-1135.
    Previous studies have suggested that visual short-term memory (VSTM) has a storage limit of approximately four items. However, the type of high-threshold (HT) model used to derive this estimate is based on a number of assumptions that have been criticized in other experimental paradigms (e.g., visual search). Here we report findings from nine experiments in which VSTM for color, spatial frequency, and orientation was modeled using a signal detection theory (SDT) approach. In Experiments 1-6, two arrays composed of multiple stimulus (...)
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  • Change Detection: Paying Attention To Detail.Erin Austen & James Enns - 2000 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 6.
    Changes made during a brief visual interruption sometimes go undetected, even when the object undergoing the change is at the center of the observer's interest and spatial attention . This study examined two potentially important attentional variables in change blindness: spatial distribution, manipulated via set size, and detail level, varied by having the change at either the global or local level of a compound letter. Experiment 1 revealed that both types of change were equally detectable in a single item, but (...)
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  • The Change Probability Effect: Incidental Learning, Adaptability, and Shared Visual Working Memory Resources.Amanda E. van Lamsweerde & Melissa R. Beck - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1676-1689.
    Statistical properties in the visual environment can be used to improve performance on visual working memory tasks. The current study examined the ability to incidentally learn that a change is more likely to occur to a particular feature dimension and use this information to improve change detection performance for that dimension . Participants completed a change detection task in which one change type was more probable than others. Change probability effects were found for color and shape changes, but not location (...)
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  • Sensing Without Seeing in Comparative Visual Search.Adam Galpin, Geoffrey Underwood & Peter Chapman - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):672-687.
    Rensink [Rensink, R. A. . Visual sensing without seeing. Psychological Science, 15, 27–32] has presented evidence suggesting visual changes may be sensed without an accompanying visual experience. Here, we report two experiments in which we monitored observers’ eye-movements whilst they searched for a difference between two simultaneously presented images and pressed separate response keys when a difference was seen or sensed. We first assessed whether sensing performance was random by collecting ratings of confidence in the validity of sensing and assessing (...)
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