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The idea of rejection originated by Aristotle. The notion of rejection was introduced into formal logic by Łukasiewicz [20]. He applied it to complete syntactic characterization of deductive systems using an axiomatic method of rejection of propositions [22, 23]. The paper gives not only genesis, but also development and generalization of the notion of rejection. It also emphasizes the methodological approach to biaspectual axiomatic method of characterization of deductive systems as acceptance (asserted) systems and rejection (refutation) systems, introduced by Łukasiewicz (...) 

In the paper, the authors discuss two kinds of consequence operations characterized axiomatically. The first one are consequence operations of the type Cn + that, in the intuitive sense, are infallible operations, always leading from accepted (true) sentences of a deductive system to accepted (true) sentences of the deductive system (see Tarski in Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik 37:361–404, 1930, Comptes Rendus des Séances De la Société des Sciences et des Lettres de Varsovie 23:22–29, 1930; Pogorzelski and Słupecki in Stud (...) 