Embedding Classical Logic in S4

Dissertation, Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy (Mcmp), Lmu Munich (2019)
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In this thesis, we will study the embedding of classical first-order logic in first-order S4, which is based on the translation originally introduced in Fitting (1970). The initial main part is dedicated to a detailed model-theoretic proof of the soundness of the embedding. This will follow the proof sketch in Fitting (1970). We will then outline a proof procedure for a proof-theoretic replication of the soundness result. Afterwards, a potential proof of faithfulness of the embedding, read in terms of soundness and completeness, will be discussed. We will particularly highlight the many difficulties coming with it. In the final section, we will relate this discussion to the debate on notational variance in French (2019). We will do this by showing how a weaker version of French's notion of ‘expressive equivalence’ conforms to the model-theoretic soundness result. We will then conclude that the soundness result without completeness might contain rather little overall insight by relating it to the extensibility of classical logic to S4.

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Sophie Nagler
University of St. Andrews


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