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  1. Extension, Translation, and the Cantor-Bernstein Property.Thomas William Barrett & Hans Halvorson - manuscript
    The purpose of this paper is to examine in detail a particularly interesting pair of first-order theories. In addition to clarifying the overall geography of notions of equivalence between theories, this simple example yields two surprising conclusions about the relationships that theories might bear to one another. In brief, we see that theories lack both the Cantor-Bernstein and co-Cantor-Bernstein properties.
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  2. A BIBLIOGRAPHY: JOHN CORCORAN's PUBLICATIONS ON ARISTOTLE 1972–2015.John Corcoran - manuscript
    This presentation includes a complete bibliography of John Corcoran’s publications devoted at least in part to Aristotle’s logic. Sections I–IV list 20 articles, 43 abstracts, 3 books, and 10 reviews. It starts with two watershed articles published in 1972: the Philosophy & Phenomenological Research article that antedates Corcoran’s Aristotle’s studies and the Journal of Symbolic Logic article first reporting his original results; it ends with works published in 2015. A few of the items are annotated with endnotes connecting them with (...)
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  3. Zeno Paradox, Unexpected Hanging Paradox (Modeling of Reality & Physical Reality, A Historical-Philosophical View).Farzad Didehvar - manuscript
    . In our research about Fuzzy Time and modeling time, "Unexpected Hanging Paradox" plays a major role. Here, we compare this paradox to the Zeno Paradox and the relations of them with our standard models of continuum and Fuzzy numbers. To do this, we review the project "Fuzzy Time and Possible Impacts of It on Science" and introduce a new way in order to approach the solutions for these paradoxes. Additionally, we have a more general discussion about paradoxes, as Philosophical (...)
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  4. Computational Reverse Mathematics and Foundational Analysis.Benedict Eastaugh - manuscript
    Reverse mathematics studies which subsystems of second order arithmetic are equivalent to key theorems of ordinary, non-set-theoretic mathematics. The main philosophical application of reverse mathematics proposed thus far is foundational analysis, which explores the limits of different foundations for mathematics in a formally precise manner. This paper gives a detailed account of the motivations and methodology of foundational analysis, which have heretofore been largely left implicit in the practice. It then shows how this account can be fruitfully applied in the (...)
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  5. Partitions and Objective Indefiniteness.David Ellerman - manuscript
    Classical physics and quantum physics suggest two meta-physical types of reality: the classical notion of a objectively definite reality with properties "all the way down," and the quantum notion of an objectively indefinite type of reality. The problem of interpreting quantum mechanics (QM) is essentially the problem of making sense out of an objectively indefinite reality. These two types of reality can be respectively associated with the two mathematical concepts of subsets and quotient sets (or partitions) which are category-theoretically dual (...)
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  6. The Impacts of Logic, Paradoxes in One Side and Theory of Computation in the Other Side.Didehvar Farzad - manuscript
    This is a presentation about the impacts of Logic and Theory of Computation. It starts by some explanations about Theory of Computation and its relations with the other subjects in science. Then we have some explanations about paradoxes and some historical points. In continuation, we present some of the most important paradoxes. Forthcoming, Five subjects around the relations between Logic and Theory of computation is introduced. Finally, we present a new approach to solve P vs NP problem via Paradoxes (Presentation (...)
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  7. Algunos tópicos de Lógica matemática y los Fundamentos de la matemática.Franklin Galindo - manuscript
    En este trabajo matemático-filosófico se estudian cuatro tópicos de la Lógica matemática: El método de construcción de modelos llamado Ultraproductos, la Propiedad de Interpolación de Craig, las Álgebras booleanas y los Órdenes parciales separativos. El objetivo principal del mismo es analizar la importancia que tienen dichos tópicos para el estudio de los fundamentos de la matemática, desde el punto de vista del platonismo matemático. Para cumplir con tal objetivo se trabajará en el ámbito de la Matemática, de la Metamatemática y (...)
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  8. What is Mathematics: Gödel's Theorem and Around (Edition 2015).Karlis Podnieks - manuscript
    Introduction to mathematical logic, part 2.Textbook for students in mathematical logic and foundations of mathematics. Platonism, Intuition, Formalism. Axiomatic set theory. Around the Continuum Problem. Axiom of Determinacy. Large Cardinal Axioms. Ackermann's Set Theory. First order arithmetic. Hilbert's 10th problem. Incompleteness theorems. Consequences. Connected results: double incompleteness theorem, unsolvability of reasoning, theorem on the size of proofs, diophantine incompleteness, Loeb's theorem, consistent universal statements are provable, Berry's paradox, incompleteness and Chaitin's theorem. Around Ramsey's theorem.
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  9. Random Formula Generators.Ariel Jonathan Roffé & Joaquín Toranzo Calderón - manuscript
    In this article, we provide three generators of propositional formulae for arbitrary languages, which uniformly sample three different formulae spaces. They take the same three parameters as input, namely, a desired depth, a set of atomics and a set of logical constants (with specified arities). The first generator returns formulae of exactly the given depth, using all or some of the propositional letters. The second does the same but samples up-to the given depth. The third generator outputs formulae with exactly (...)
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  10. Formal Differential Variables and an Abstract Chain Rule.Samuel Alexander - forthcoming - Proceedings of the ACMS.
    One shortcoming of the chain rule is that it does not iterate: it gives the derivative of f(g(x)), but not (directly) the second or higher-order derivatives. We present iterated differentials and a version of the multivariable chain rule which iterates to any desired level of derivative. We first present this material informally, and later discuss how to make it rigorous (a discussion which touches on formal foundations of calculus). We also suggest a finite calculus chain rule (contrary to Graham, Knuth (...)
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  11. Structural Relativity and Informal Rigour.Neil Barton - forthcoming - In Objects, Structures, and Logics, FilMat Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics.
    Informal rigour is the process by which we come to understand particular mathematical structures and then manifest this rigour through axiomatisations. Structural relativity is the idea that the kinds of structures we isolate are dependent upon the logic we employ. We bring together these ideas by considering the level of informal rigour exhibited by our set-theoretic discourse, and argue that different foundational programmes should countenance different underlying logics (intermediate between first- and second-order) for formulating set theory. By bringing considerations of (...)
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  12. Bolzano’s Mathematical Infinite.Anna Bellomo & Guillaume Massas - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-80.
    Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) is commonly thought to have attempted to develop a theory of size for infinite collections that follows the so-called part-whole principle, according to which the whole is always greater than any of its proper parts. In this paper, we develop a novel interpretation of Bolzano's mature theory of the infinite and show that, contrary to mainstream interpretations, it is best understood as a theory of infinite sums. Our formal results show that Bolzano's infinite sums can be equipped (...)
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  13. Logics of Formal Inconsistency Enriched with Replacement: An Algebraic and Modal Account.Walter Carnielli, Marcelo E. Coniglio & David Fuenmayor - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic.
    One of the most expected properties of a logical system is that it can be algebraizable, in the sense that an algebraic counterpart of the deductive machinery could be found. Since the inception of da Costa's paraconsistent calculi, an algebraic equivalent for such systems have been searched. It is known that these systems are non self-extensional (i.e., they do not satisfy the replacement property). More than this, they are not algebraizable in the sense of Blok-Pigozzi. The same negative results hold (...)
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  14. The Well-Ordered Society Under Crisis: A Formal Analysis of Public Reason Vs. Convergence Discourse.Hun Chung - forthcoming - American Journal of Political Science:1-20.
    A well-ordered society faces a crisis whenever a sufficient number of noncompliers enter into the political system. This has the potential to destabilize liberal democratic political order. This article provides a formal analysis of two competing solutions to the problem of political stability offered in the public reason liberalism literature—namely, using public reason or using convergence discourse to restore liberal democratic political order in the well-ordered society. The formal analyses offered in this article show that using public reason fails completely, (...)
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  15. Computational Logic. Vol. 1: Classical Deductive Computing with Classical Logic. 2nd Ed.Luis M. Augusto - 2022 - London: College Publications.
    This is the 3rd edition. Although a number of new technological applications require classical deductive computation with non-classical logics, many key technologies still do well—or exclusively, for that matter—with classical logic. In this first volume, we elaborate on classical deductive computing with classical logic. The objective of the main text is to provide the reader with a thorough elaboration on both classical computing – a.k.a. formal languages and automata theory – and classical deduction with the classical first-order predicate calculus with (...)
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  16. Mutual translatability, equivalence, and the structure of theories.Thomas William Barrett & Hans Halvorson - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-36.
    This paper presents a simple pair of first-order theories that are not definitionally (nor Morita) equivalent, yet are mutually conservatively translatable and mutually 'surjectively' translatable. We use these results to clarify the overall geography of standards of equivalence and to show that the structural commitments that theories make behave in a more subtle manner than has been recognized.
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  17. On Representations of Intended Structures in Foundational Theories.Neil Barton, Moritz Müller & Mihai Prunescu - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (2):283-296.
    Often philosophers, logicians, and mathematicians employ a notion of intended structure when talking about a branch of mathematics. In addition, we know that there are foundational mathematical theories that can find representatives for the objects of informal mathematics. In this paper, we examine how faithfully foundational theories can represent intended structures, and show that this question is closely linked to the decidability of the theory of the intended structure. We argue that this sheds light on the trade-off between expressive power (...)
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  18. And Now for Something Completely Different: The Elementary Process Theory. Revised, Updated and Extended 2nd Edition of the Dissertation with Almost the Same Title.Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet - 2022 - Utrecht: Eburon Academic Publishers.
    On the one hand, theories of modern physics are very successful in their areas of application. But on the other hand, the irreconcilability of General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) suggests that these theories of modern physics are not the final answer regarding the fundamental workings of the universe. This monograph takes the position that the key to advances in the foundations of physics lies in the hypothesis that massive systems made up of antimatter are repulsed by the gravitational (...)
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  19. Weakly Free Multialgebras.Marcelo E. Coniglio & Guilherme V. Toledo - 2022 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 51 (1):109-141.
    In abstract algebraic logic, many systems, such as those paraconsistent logics taking inspiration from da Costa's hierarchy, are not algebraizable by even the broadest standard methodologies, as that of Blok and Pigozzi. However, these logics can be semantically characterized by means of non-deterministic algebraic structures such as Nmatrices, RNmatrices and swap structures. These structures are based on multialgebras, which generalize algebras by allowing the result of an operation to assume a non-empty set of values. This leads to an interest in (...)
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  20. Lógica Matemática y el Método de Polya para resolver problemas matemáticos.Franklin Galindo - 2022 - Dissertation,
    La siguiente ponencia-taller tiene por finalidad explicar cómo podría aplicarse el Método de George Polya para resolver problemas (matemáticos) en el contexto de la Lógica Matemática, especialmente en la lógica Matemática elemental (la lógica de primer orden con identidad). Es una propuesta pedagógica experimental (además de las ya existentes) que tal vez pueda ser útil para la enseñanza de la lógica matemática en ciencias o en humanidades. Dicha ponencia se presentó (vía web) con motivo de la celebración del Día Mundial (...)
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  21. Cut-Conditions on Sets of Multiple-Alternative Inferences.Harold T. Hodes - 2022 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 68 (1):95 - 106.
    I prove that the Boolean Prime Ideal Theorem is equivalent, under some weak set-theoretic assumptions, to what I will call the Cut-for-Formulas to Cut-for-Sets Theorem: for a set F and a binary relation |- on Power(F), if |- is finitary, monotonic, and satisfies cut for formulas, then it also satisfies cut for sets. I deduce the CF/CS Theorem from the Ultrafilter Theorem twice; each proof uses a different order-theoretic variant of the Tukey- Teichmüller Lemma. I then discuss relationships between various (...)
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  22. Combing Graphs and Eulerian Diagrams in Eristic.Jens Lemanski & Reetu Bhattacharjee - 2022 - In Valeria Giardino, Sven Linker, Tony Burns, Francesco Bellucci, J. M. Boucheix & Diego Viana (eds.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. 13th International Conference, Diagrams 2022, Rome, Italy, September 14–16, 2022, Proceedings. Cham: pp. 97–113.
    In this paper, we analyze and discuss Schopenhauer’s n-term diagrams for eristic dialectics from a graph-theoretical perspective. Unlike logic, eristic dialectics does not examine the validity of an isolated argument, but the progression and persuasiveness of an argument in the context of a dialogue or even controversy. To represent these dialogue situations, Schopenhauer created large maps with concepts and Euler-type diagrams, which from today’s perspective are a specific form of graphs. We first present the original method with Euler-type diagrams, then (...)
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  23. Para Todxs: Natal - uma introdução à lógica formal.P. D. Magnus, Tim Button, Robert Loftis, Robert Trueman, Aaron Thomas Bolduc, Richard Zach, Daniel Durante, Maria da Paz Nunes de Medeiros, Ricardo Gentil de Araújo Pereira, Tiago de Oliveira Magalhães, Hudson Benevides, Jordão Cardoso, Paulo Benício de Andrade Guimarães & Valdeniz da Silva Cruz Junior - 2022 - Natal-RN: PPGFIL-UFRN.
    Livro-texto de introdução à lógica, com (mais do que) pitadas de filosofia da lógica, produzido como uma versão revista e ampliada do livro Forallx: Calgary. Trata-se da versão de 13 de outubro de 2022. Comentários, críticas, correções e sugestões são muito bem-vindos.
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  24. Extension and Self-Connection.Ben Blumson & Manikaran Singh - 2021 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 30 (3):435-59.
    If two self-connected individuals are connected, it follows in classical extensional mereotopology that the sum of those individuals is self-connected too. Since mainland Europe and mainland Asia, for example, are both self-connected and connected to each other, mainland Eurasia is also self-connected. In contrast, in non-extensional mereotopologies, two individuals may have more than one sum, in which case it does not follow from their being self-connected and connected that the sum of those individuals is self-connected too. Nevertheless, one would still (...)
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  25. The Normalization Theorem for the First-Order Classical Natural Deduction with Disjunctive Syllogism.Seungrak Choi - 2021 - Korean Journal of Logic 2 (24):143-168.
    In the present paper, we prove the normalization theorem and the consistency of the first-order classical logic with disjunctive syllogism. First, we propose the natural deduction system SCD for classical propositional logic having rules for conjunction, implication, negation, and disjunction. The rules for disjunctive syllogism are regarded as the rules for disjunction. After we prove the normalization theorem and the consistency of SCD, we extend SCD to the system SPCD for the first-order classical logic with disjunctive syllogism. It can be (...)
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  26. Display to Labeled Proofs and Back Again for Tense Logics.Agata Ciabattoni, Tim Lyon, Revantha Ramanayake & Alwen Tiu - 2021 - ACM Transactions on Computational Logic 22 (3):1-31.
    We introduce translations between display calculus proofs and labeled calculus proofs in the context of tense logics. First, we show that every derivation in the display calculus for the minimal tense logic Kt extended with general path axioms can be effectively transformed into a derivation in the corresponding labeled calculus. Concerning the converse translation, we show that for Kt extended with path axioms, every derivation in the corresponding labeled calculus can be put into a special form that is translatable to (...)
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  27. Nested Sequents for Intuitionistic Modal Logics Via Structural Refinement.Tim Lyon - 2021 - In Anupam Das & Sara Negri (eds.), Automated Reasoning with Analytic Tableaux and Related Methods: TABLEAUX 2021. 93413 Cham, Germany: pp. 409-427.
    We employ a recently developed methodology -- called "structural refinement" -- to extract nested sequent systems for a sizable class of intuitionistic modal logics from their respective labelled sequent systems. This method can be seen as a means by which labelled sequent systems can be transformed into nested sequent systems through the introduction of propagation rules and the elimination of structural rules, followed by a notational translation. The nested systems we obtain incorporate propagation rules that are parameterized with formal grammars, (...)
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  28. On the Correspondence Between Nested Calculi and Semantic Systems for Intuitionistic Logics.Tim Lyon - 2021 - Journal of Logic and Computation 31 (1):213-265.
    This paper studies the relationship between labelled and nested calculi for propositional intuitionistic logic, first-order intuitionistic logic with non-constant domains and first-order intuitionistic logic with constant domains. It is shown that Fitting’s nested calculi naturally arise from their corresponding labelled calculi—for each of the aforementioned logics—via the elimination of structural rules in labelled derivations. The translational correspondence between the two types of systems is leveraged to show that the nested calculi inherit proof-theoretic properties from their associated labelled calculi, such as (...)
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  29. Refining Labelled Systems for Modal and Constructive Logics with Applications.Tim Lyon - 2021 - Dissertation, Technischen Universität Wien
    This thesis introduces the "method of structural refinement", which serves as a means of transforming the relational semantics of a modal and/or constructive logic into an 'economical' proof system by connecting two proof-theoretic paradigms: labelled and nested sequent calculi. The formalism of labelled sequents has been successful in that cut-free calculi in possession of desirable proof-theoretic properties can be automatically generated for large classes of logics. Despite these qualities, labelled systems make use of a complicated syntax that explicitly incorporates the (...)
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  30. Sets, Logic, Computation: An Open Introduction to Metalogic.Richard Zach - 2021 - Open Logic Project.
    An introductory textbook on metalogic. It covers naive set theory, first-order logic, sequent calculus and natural deduction, the completeness, compactness, and Löwenheim-Skolem theorems, Turing machines, and the undecidability of the halting problem and of first-order logic. The audience is undergraduate students with some background in formal logic.
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  31. Logical Consequences. Theory and Applications: An Introduction.Luis M. Augusto - 2020 - London: College Publications.
    2nd edition. The theory of logical consequence is central in modern logic and its applications. However, it is mostly dispersed in an abundance of often difficultly accessible papers, and rarely treated with applications in mind. This book collects the most fundamental aspects of this theory and offers the reader the basics of its applications in computer science, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science, to name but the most important fields where this notion finds its many applications.
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  32. Many-Valued Logics. A Mathematical and Computational Introduction.Luis M. Augusto - 2020 - London: College Publications.
    2nd edition. Many-valued logics are those logics that have more than the two classical truth values, to wit, true and false; in fact, they can have from three to infinitely many truth values. This property, together with truth-functionality, provides a powerful formalism to reason in settings where classical logic—as well as other non-classical logics—is of no avail. Indeed, originally motivated by philosophical concerns, these logics soon proved relevant for a plethora of applications ranging from switching theory to cognitive modeling, and (...)
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  33. Forcing and the Universe of Sets: Must We Lose Insight?Neil Barton - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (4):575-612.
    A central area of current philosophical debate in the foundations of mathematics concerns whether or not there is a single, maximal, universe of set theory. Universists maintain that there is such a universe, while Multiversists argue that there are many universes, no one of which is ontologically privileged. Often forcing constructions that add subsets to models are cited as evidence in favour of the latter. This paper informs this debate by analysing ways the Universist might interpret this discourse that seems (...)
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  34. Inner-Model Reflection Principles.Neil Barton, Andrés Eduardo Caicedo, Gunter Fuchs, Joel David Hamkins, Jonas Reitz & Ralf Schindler - 2020 - Studia Logica 108 (3):573-595.
    We introduce and consider the inner-model reflection principle, which asserts that whenever a statement \varphi(a) in the first-order language of set theory is true in the set-theoretic universe V, then it is also true in a proper inner model W \subset A. A stronger principle, the ground-model reflection principle, asserts that any such \varphi(a) true in V is also true in some non-trivial ground model of the universe with respect to set forcing. These principles each express a form of width (...)
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  35. Review of John Stillwell, Reverse Mathematics: Proofs From the Inside Out. [REVIEW]Benedict Eastaugh - 2020 - Philosophia Mathematica 28 (1):108-116.
    Review of John Stillwell, Reverse Mathematics: Proofs from the Inside Out. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2018, pp. 200. ISBN 978-0-69-117717-5 (hbk), 978-0-69-119641-1 (pbk), 978-1-40-088903-7 (e-book).
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  36. Un teorema sobre el Modelo de Solovay.Franklin Galindo - 2020 - Divulgaciones Matematicas 21 (1-2): 42–46.
    The objective of this article is to present an original proof of the following theorem: Thereis a generic extension of the Solovay’s model L(R) where there is a linear order of P(N)/fin that extends to the partial order (P(N)/f in), ≤*). Linear orders of P(N)/fin are important because, among other reasons, they allow constructing non-measurable sets, moreover they are applied in Ramsey's Theory .
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  37. Tópicos de Ultrafiltros.Franklin Galindo - 2020 - Divulgaciones Matematicas 21 (1-2):54-77.
    Ultrafilters are very important mathematical objects in mathematical research [6, 22, 23]. There are a wide variety of classical theorems in various branches of mathematics where ultrafilters are applied in their proof, and other classical theorems that deal directly with ultrafilters. The objective of this article is to contribute (in a divulgative way) to ultrafilter research by describing the demonstrations of some such theorems related (uniquely or in combination) to topology, Measure Theory, algebra, combinatorial infinite, set theory and first-order logic, (...)
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  38. Doing the Math: Comparing Ontario and Singapore Mathematics Curriculum at the Primary Level.Dieu Trang Hoang - 2020 - Dissertation, Brock University
    This paper sought to investigate the fundamental differences in mathematics education through a comparison of curriculum of 2 countries—Singapore and Canada (as represented by Ontario)—in order to discover what the Ontario education system may learn from Singapore in terms of mathematics education. Mathematics curriculum were collected for Grades 1 to 8 for Ontario, and the equivalent in Singapore. The 2 curriculums were textually analyzed based on both the original and the revised Bloom’s taxonomy to expose their foci. The difference in (...)
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  39. Forms of Structuralism: Bourbaki and the Philosophers.Jean-Pierre Marquis - 2020 - Structures Meres, Semantics, Mathematics, and Cognitive Science.
    In this paper, we argue that, contrary to the view held by most philosophers of mathematics, Bourbaki’s technical conception of mathematical structuralism is relevant to philosophy of mathematics. In fact, we believe that Bourbaki has captured the core of any mathematical structuralism.
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  40. J. M. Bocheński's Understanding of the World and Logical Albebraic Structures.Wybraniec-Skardowska Urszula - 2020 - Edukacja Filozoficzna 70 (5):81-92.
    This work will focus on Józef Maria Bocheński’s inclination towards seeing the world and its logical structure from the point of view of ontology. In section 2, we shall discuss the perception of the world deriving from Bocheński, while in the third section – issues of its logical structure will be dealt with. In section 4, we will present a formal framework of the structure of the world.
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  41. Concerning Formal Concept Analysis on Complete Residuated Lattices.Abner de Mattos Brito - 2019 - Dissertation, University of Campinas, Brazil
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  42. Set Existence Principles and Closure Conditions: Unravelling the Standard View of Reverse Mathematics.Benedict Eastaugh - 2019 - Philosophia Mathematica 27 (2):153-176.
    It is a striking fact from reverse mathematics that almost all theorems of countable and countably representable mathematics are equivalent to just five subsystems of second order arithmetic. The standard view is that the significance of these equivalences lies in the set existence principles that are necessary and sufficient to prove those theorems. In this article I analyse the role of set existence principles in reverse mathematics, and argue that they are best understood as closure conditions on the powerset of (...)
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  43. There is No Standard Model of ZFC and ZFC2. Part II.Jaykov Foukzon & Elena Men’Kova - 2019 - Advanced in Pure Mathematic 9 (9):685-744.
    In this article we proved so-called strong reflection principles corresponding to formal theories Th which has omega-models or nonstandard model with standard part. An posible generalization of Lob’s theorem is considered.Main results are: (i) ConZFC  Mst ZFC, (ii) ConZF  V  L, (iii) ConNF  Mst NF, (iv) ConZFC2, (v) let k be inaccessible cardinal then ConZFC  .
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  44. Algunas notas introductorias sobre la Teoría de Conjuntos.Franklin Galindo - 2019 - Apuntes Filosóficos: Revista Semestral de la Escuela de Filosofía 18 (55):201-232.
    The objective of this document is to present three introductory notes on set theory: The first note presents an overview of this discipline from its origins to the present, in the second note some considerations are made about the evaluation of reasoning applying the first-order Logic and Löwenheim's theorems, Church Indecidibility, Completeness and Incompleteness of Gödel, it is known that the axiomatic theories of most commonly used sets are written in a specific first-order language, that is, they are developed within (...)
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  45. ¿Cómo utilizar el Teorema de Herbrand para decidir la validez de razonamientos en lenguaje de primer orden, en conformidad con el Teorema de Indecidibilidad de Church?Franklin Galindo & María Alejandra Morgado - 2019 - Apuntes Filosóficos: Revista Semestral de la Escuela de Filosofía 18 (55):67-86.
    This article’s objetive is to present four application examples of Herbrand’s theorem to decide the validity of reasoning on first order language, in accordance whit Church’s Undecidability’s theorem. Also, to tell which is the principal problem around it. The logical resolution calculus will be worked on this article, which is a method used in artificial intelligence.
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  46. Sofia A. Yanovskaya: The Marxist Pioneer of Mathematical Logic in the Soviet Union.Dimitris Kilakos - 2019 - Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science 6:49-64.
    K. Marx’s 200th jubilee coincides with the celebration of the 85 years from the first publication of his “Mathematical Manuscripts” in 1933. Its editor, Sofia Alexandrovna Yanovskaya (1896–1966), was a renowned Soviet mathematician, whose significant studies on the foundations of mathematics and mathematical logic, as well as on the history and philosophy of mathematics are unduly neglected nowadays. Yanovskaya, as a militant Marxist, was actively engaged in the ideological confrontation with idealism and its influence on modern mathematics and their interpretation. (...)
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  47. Embedding Classical Logic in S4.Sophie Nagler - 2019 - Dissertation, Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy (MCMP), LMU Munich
    In this thesis, we will study the embedding of classical first-order logic in first-order S4, which is based on the translation originally introduced in Fitting (1970). The initial main part is dedicated to a detailed model-theoretic proof of the soundness of the embedding. This will follow the proof sketch in Fitting (1970). We will then outline a proof procedure for a proof-theoretic replication of the soundness result. Afterwards, a potential proof of faithfulness of the embedding, read in terms of soundness (...)
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  48. Incompleteness and Computability: An Open Introduction to Gödel's Theorems.Richard Zach - 2019 - Open Logic Project.
    Textbook on Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and computability theory, based on the Open Logic Project. Covers recursive function theory, arithmetization of syntax, the first and second incompleteness theorem, models of arithmetic, second-order logic, and the lambda calculus.
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  49. Willard Van Orman Quine's Philosophical Development in the 1930s and 1940s.Frederique Janssen-Lauret - 2018 - In Walter Carnielli, Frederique Janssen-Lauret & William Pickering (eds.), The Significance of the New Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    As analytic philosophy is becoming increasingly aware of and interested in its own history, the study of that field is broadening to include, not just its earliest beginnings, but also the mid-twentieth century. One of the towering figures of this epoch is W.V. Quine (1908-2000), champion of naturalism in philosophy of science, pioneer of mathematical logic, trying to unite an austerely physicalist theory of the world with the truths of mathematics, psychology, and linguistics. Quine's posthumous papers, notes, and drafts revealing (...)
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  50. Computable Bi-Embeddable Categoricity.Luca San Mauro, Nikolay Bazhenov, Ekaterina Fokina & Dino Rossegger - 2018 - Algebra and Logic 5 (57):392-396.
    We study the algorithmic complexity of isomorphic embeddings between computable structures.
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