Autism: the micro-movement perspective

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Abstract
The current assessment of behaviors in the inventories to diagnose autism spectrum disorders (ASD) focus on observation and discrete categorizations. Behaviors require movements, yet measurements of physical movements are seldom included. Their inclusion however, could provide an objective characterization of behavior to help unveil interactions between the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Such interactions are critical for the development and maintenance of spontaneous autonomy, self-regulation and voluntary control. At present, current approaches cannot deal with the heterogeneous, dynamic and stochastic nature of development. Accordingly, they leave no avenues for real-time or longitudinal assessments of change in a coping system continuously adapting and developing compensatory mechanisms. We offer a new unifying statistical framework to reveal re-afferent kinesthetic features of the individual with ASD. The new methodology is based on the non-stationary stochastic patterns of minute fluctuations (micro-movements) inherent to our natural actions. Such patterns of behavioral variability provide re-entrant sensory feedback contributing to the autonomous regulation and coordination of the motor output. From an early age, this feedback supports centrally driven volitional control and fluid, flexible transitions between intentional and spontaneous behaviors. We show that in ASD there is a disruption in the maturation of this form of proprioception. Despite this disturbance, each individual has unique adaptive compensatory capabilities that we can unveil and exploit to evoke faster and more accurate decisions. Measuring the kinesthetic re-afference in tandem with stimuli variations we can detect changes in their micro-movements indicative of a more predictive and reliable kinesthetic percept. Our methods address the heterogeneity of ASD with a personalized approach grounded in the inherent sensory-motor abilities that the individual has already developed.
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Archival date: 2015-11-21
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References found in this work BETA
Does the Autistic Child Have a “Theory of Mind”?Baron-Cohen, Simon; Leslie, Alan M. & Frith, Uta
Internal Models in the Cerebellum.Wolpert, Daniel M.; Miall, R. Chris & Kawato, Mitsuo
Imitation, Mirror Neurons and Autism.Williams, Justin H. G.; Whiten, Andrew; Suddendorf, Thomas & Perrett, David I.

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Citations of this work BETA
Noise From the Periphery in Autism.Brincker, Maria & Torres, Elizabeth B.
Neonatal Diagnostics: Toward Dynamic Growth Charts of Neuromotor Control.Torres, Elizabeth B.; Smith, Beth; Mistry, Sejal; Brincker, Maria & Whyatt, Caroline
Patterns of Joint Improvisation in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Brezis, Rachel-Shlomit; Noy, Lior; Alony, Tali; Gotlieb, Rachel; Cohen, Rachel; Golland, Yulia & Levit-Binnun, Nava
Automatically Characterizing Sensory-Motor Patterns Underlying Reach-to-Grasp Movements on a Physical Depth Inversion Illusion.Nguyen, Jillian; Majmudar, Ushma V.; Ravaliya, Jay H.; Papathomas, Thomas V. & Torres, Elizabeth B.

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